Location of India

Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan.


Geographic Co-ordinates

20 00 N, 77 00 E





3,287,590 sq km


2,973,190 sq km


314,400 sq km


Slightly more than one-third the size of the US.


Land boundaries (Total)

14,103 km.


Border Shared With Countries


4,053 km


605 km


1,463 km


3,380 km


1,690 km


2,912 km


Coastline: Claims and Boundaries


7,000 km

Maritime claims (Contiguous zone)

24 NM

Territorial sea

12 NM

Continental shelf

200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

Exclusive economic zone

200 NM



Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north



Upland Plain (Deccan Plateau) in South, Flat to Rolling Plain along the Ganges, Deserts in West, Himalayas in North.


Elevation extremes


Lowest point

Indian Ocean 0 m

Highest point

Kanchenjunga 8,598 m

Natural resources

Coal, Iron Ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Titanium Ore, Chromite, Natural Gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone, Arable Land


Land use


Arable land


Permanent crops



42.99% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land

590,000 sq km (1998 est.) 

Natural hazards

Droughts, Flash Floods, Widespread and Destructive Flooding from Monsoonal Rains, Severe Thunderstorms, Earthquakes.




Current issues

Deforestation, Soil Erosion, Overgrazing, Desertification, Air Pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions, Water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides, Tap water is not potable throughout the country, Huge and growing population is verstraining natural resources.

International agreements

Party To: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling. 
Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements




Geography of India


India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area which makes it an obvious place to have vast geographical features. It lies on the Indian Plate, a northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by three different water bodies and is easily recognisable on the world map.




Geographical Features


The country covers an area of about 3.28 million sq km. The mainland of India extends between 8°4' and 37°6' N latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' E longitude. The Tropic of Cancer 23°30' N divides India into almost two halves. The land frontier of the country is 15,200 km and the total length of the coastline is 7,517 kilometers. Indian peninsula tapers southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. In India, there is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, and a number of islands.






Physiographic Regions


On the basis of relief features, tectonic history and stratigraphy, India can be divided into several physical units.





  1. The Great Mountains of the North:

    India comprises the Himalayas in the North and Northeastern region, which divides the country from the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayan range is further divided into different ranges:
    1. Pir Panjal Range: This is the largest range of the lower Himalayas and runs from the east-southeast to west-northwest. The Pir Panjal pass lies to the west of Srinagar and comprises Banihal Pass, Sinthal Pass, Rohtang La, Munawar Pass and Haji Pir Pass.

    2. Ladakh Range: This range extends from the northern side of Leh to the Tibetan border. It comprises Digar La Pass and Khardung La Pass.

    3. Zanskar Range: This range is spread over an area that starts from southeastern boundaries of Kashmir and extends to the eastern limit of Baltistan. Singge La Pass, Runrang La Pass, Fotu (Fatu) La Pass, Marbal Pass and Zoji La Pass are some of the passes of this range.

    4. Dhauladhar Range: This range rises from the plains of India to the north of Mandi and Kangra. Hanuman ji Ka Tiba or the 'White Mountain' is the highest peak of this range.

    5. East Karakoram Range: This range separates India from the Central Asia and is also one of the laeger ranges of Asia. It is home to the second highest peak of the world, K2.

  2. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    The Indo-Gangetic Plain is also known as the Great Plains and is dominated by three major rivers - the Ganges, the Indus and the Brahmaputra. It cover a large area of about 7,00,000 sq km in the Northern and Eastern India. The plain is divided into four divisions:
    1. The Bhabar Belt: It is a narrow belt that lies in the foothills of Himalayas and comprises pebbles and rocks brought down by the streams.

    2. The Terai Belt: It is located in the south of the Bhabar region and is made up of newer alluvium.

    3. The Bangar Belt: It includes older alluvium and has a low upland in the Gangetic plains which is covered by the laterite deposits.

    4. The Khader Belt: It lies on the lower side of the Bhabar belt and is made up of newer alluvium which is brought down by the rivers which flow down to this plain.

  3. The Peninsular Plateau

    The Peninsular Plateau is a tableland its characteristic features include shallow valleys and rounded hills. It is broadly divided into three different plateaus:
    1. The Deccan Plateau: It is a triangular shaped plateau and is bounded by the Vindhyas and the Western and Eastern Ghats. It stretches to eight states of India and covers a total area of 1.9 million sq km.

    2. The Malwa Plateau: The Malwa Plateau is spread across the parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Chambal River and its tributaries find their way in this plateau and Mahi River also flow through its Western region.

    3. The Chota Nagpur Plateau: Situated in the eastern India, Chota Nagpur Plateau covers the parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.

  4. The Coastal Plains

    The Coastal India spans Arabian Sea in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East. The Eastern Coastal Plains lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal; and stretches from Tamil Nadu to West Bengal. The rivers which flow through it are Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari and Mahanadi. It is divided into six different areas- the Southern Andhra Pradesh, the Kanyakumari coast, the Mahanadi delta, the Coromondel coast and sandy coast.

    The Western Coastal Plains is sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea and extends from Gujarat in the north and covers the regions of Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala and Karnataka. There are numerous rivers and backwaters in this region. It is divided into two parts - the Malabar Coast and the Konkan.

  5. The Thar Desert

    The Thar Desert is one of the largest deserts of the world. It extends across Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab and covers over 60% of the geographical area of Rajasthan. It also extends to Pakistan and is known as Cholistan Desert there. Luni is the only river in this desert and it receives very little rainfall. Major portion of this desert consists of craggy rocks, sand dunes and compacted salt-lake bottoms. The speedy winds that flow with force make the nature of the soil get eroded more often. It has arid climate and the vegetation is scanty.

  6. The Islands

    There are two major groups of islands in India which are also classified as the union territories- the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Lakshadweep Islands. Lakshadweep is located in the Arabian Sea and covers an area of 32 sq km. It has a total of about 35 islands and islets. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands is larger in size and comprises 572 islands. Andaman is located in the north and Nicobar is located in the south. Some of the other important islands in India are Daman and Diu, Majuli, Salsette Island and Sriharikota.



Major Mountain Ranges in India




  1. The Himalayan Range: This is the world's highest mountain range and the tallest peak of the world, Mt. Everest, is also a part of it. It acts as a barrier against the frigid katabatic winds which flow down from Central Asia and protects India from its effects.

  2. Patkai Range: Patkai or Purvanchal lies on the east of India-Burma border. It comprises three hill ranges- Garo-Khasi-Jaintia in Meghalaya, Lushai hills and Patkai-Bum.

  3. Karakoram Range: It lies in the disputed areas of Jammu and Kashmir and comprises more than 60 peaks. K2, the second highest peak of the world, is also a part of this range. Besides, the Hindu Kush range, Siachen and Biafo Glacier also a part of this range.

  4. Shivalik Hills: The literal meaning of Shivalik is 'tresses of India'. It extends from Arunachal Pradesh to West Bengal and from Uttarakhand to Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Jammu, Kangra and Vaishno Devi are a part of this range.

  5. Vindhya Range: This range spreads across central India and extends across 1,050 km. It is believed to be formed from the Aravalli Mountains. Due to its geographical location in central India, it separates Northern and Southern India.

  6. Aravalli Range: This is India's oldest mountain range and spreads across the parts of Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana. Guru Shikhar in Mount Abu is the highest peak of this range, which rise to 1,722 m.

  7. Satpura Range: This range stretches from Gujarat and runs to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

  8. Western and Eastern Ghats: Western Ghats are also known as Sahyadri Mountains and runs parallel to Indian peninsula's western coast. Eastern Ghats or Purva Ghat is a discontinuous range of mountains which runs along the eastern coast of India.



States and Union Territories


There are 29 states in India, located in the total area of 3,287,263 sq km. The largest of all Indian states is Rajasthan, which covers an area of 3,42,239 sq km. It shares its border with Pakistan on its west, Gujarat on its southwest, Madhya Pradesh on its southeast and Punjab on its north.

Goa is the smallest state in India, located merely in 3,702 sq km. The state is located to the southwest of India. Uttar Pradesh lying to the northeast of the country is the most populous state. Gujarat, lying on the extreme west of the country, is one of the most prosperous of all Indian states. The strikingly beautiful Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state in the country. India's eastern border is bordered by states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Assam,Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh. All these states together are located in the 7% of the total area of the country. The union territories in India are seven in numbers. Delhi, the capital of India, also falls under this category. The other union territories of the country include Chandigarh, in the north; Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, in the west; Lakshadweep, in the southwest; and Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, in the southeast of the country.





Water Resources



India is surrounded by water from three sides - Arabian Sea in the west, Bay of Bengal in the east and Indian Ocean in the south. There are many water bodies in India in the form of rivers, canals, gulfs, backwaters etc. There are 12 major rivers in the country and they originate from any one of the three watersheds. There is a large reserve of rivers - big and small, and all these rivers are revered in the country other than merely being the sources of water. The river Brahmaputra is a trans-boundary river. It originates in Tibet and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and passes through Assam before finally making its way through Bangladesh. The river Ganga is the longest river in India and is considered to be the most pious river in the country. It has several tributaries including river Yamuna, which is the only water body near the national capital - New Delhi. River Chambal, a tributary of Yamuna passes through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The other major rivers in India include Narmada River, originating at Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, river Godavari, originating at Trayambakeshwar in Maharashtra, river Krishna originating at Mahabaleshwar, river Kaveri passing through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, Mahanadi River flowing through Chhattisgarh and Odisha. The other rivers in the country include Mahi, Betwa, Penner, Kosi, Tungabhadra and several others. Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Cambay are the major gulfs of the country.

Political Boundaries


India shares its international borders with Pakistan on its west, and Nepal, China and Bhutan on its northeast. It is surrounded by Burma and Bangladesh on its east. Sri Lanka lies to the south of India and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie close to Thailand and Indonesia. The political boundaries of Pakistan and Bangladesh with India are traced according to the Radcliffe Line. The Line of Control (LoC) delineates the borders of India and Pakistan and serves as a boundary between the administered areas of Kashmir in both the countries. The MacMohan Line is a border that divides India and China and runs along the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim. India-Bangladesh border is one of the longest borders of world and touches Indian states like Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh.







India has a variety of climates, varying from tropical climate in the south to temperate and alpine climate in the Himalayan north. The climate is altered by the Thar Desert and the Himalayas. Some areas in the north have severe summers with extreme winters, with the temperature reaching to freezing point. The country encounters four different types of seasons - winter, summer, monsoon, and post-monsoon. In some states, the temperature in summers rise up to 45°C and minimum temperature decreases to 15°C only. In winters, the average temperature is about 10-15°C. The highest temperature recorded in India so far is 50.6°C in Alwar, Rajasthan. The lowest temperature was recorded in Kashmir at -45°C.

The map will help you locate all these and more. All the international boundaries of the country are marked in pink lines. Grey dotted lines stand for the state boundaries and will help you be familiar with all the Indian states and their neighbours. The blue lines scattered throughout the map represent all the major rivers in the country.