NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGY
- Biology : It is the branch of science which deals with the study of the living organisms and their life processes.
- Botany : It deals with the study of plants.
- Zoology : It deals with the study of animals.
- Molecular biology : It
is the branch of biology connected with the study of physicochemical
organization, synthesis, working and interaction of biomolecules that
bring about and control the various activities of the protoplasm.
- Radiation biology : The study of the effects of radiations on living organisms is called radiation biology.
- Ecology : It deals with the study of the interaction of plants and animals with their environment.
- Anatomy : It is a branch of biology which deals with the study of internal structure of an organism as revealed by dissection.
- Morphology : It deals with the study of form and structure of animals and plants.
- Cell biology : It deals with the study of structure and functions of cells.
- Steady state : When
the rate of input of matter and energy into a system is equal to that
of the output, then that system is known to be in a steady state.
- Homeostasis : It
is the ability of living organisms to maintain the internal environment
constant so that chemical reactions in their cells may go on without
interruption, in spite of changes in the external environment.
- Chemoheterotrophs : They are the organisms which depend upon organic molecules in the broth for getting energy.
- Amniocentensis : It
is the technique which is used to determine sex and also to diagnose
any chromosomal and biochemical abnormalities. This is done by the study
of cells separated from the emniotic fluid present around the embryo.
- Analoguous structures : Refers to structurally different but functionally alike structures.
- Histology : It deals with the microscopic study of tissues and organs.
- Genetics : It is the study of inheritance of characters.
- Physiology : It is the study of functions of various parts of an organism.
- Anthropology : The science of man and mankind including the study of physical, cultural, social and mental constitution.
- Metabolism : It is the sum total of all the chemical reactions that take parts in the bodies of living organisms.
- Adaptation : It
refers to any feature of an organism or its parts which is of a
definite significance in permitting that organism to exist under the
conditions of its habitat.
- Anabolism : It is the sum total of all the synthetic or constructive activities in the body.
- Catabolism : It is the sum total of all the chemical reactions leading to breakdown of complex substances into simple ones.
- Cell : It
is a small mass of protoplasm surrounded by plasma membrane and may
have one or more nuclei. It is a fundamental, structural and functional
unit of life.
- Cytoplasm : It is a part of protoplasm in the space between nuclear membrane and plasma membrane, having cell organelles.
- Gestation : It refers to the period of time between fertilization and birth in a viviparous animal.
- Lysosome : It refers t the cytoplasmic organelle that contains a range of hydrolytic enzymes.
- Transcription : The process by which the genetic information in DNA is converted into a single strand of mRNA.
- Translation : The process by which the genetic information in mRNA is used to arrange specific amino acids in a polypeptide.
- Genetic engineering : It is the science that involves manipulation of genetic material by insertion or deletion of DNA into the cells of an organism.
- Homology : It refers to structurally similar but functionally different organs.
- Ecosystem : A biotic community along with the physical environment forms an interacting system known as ecosystem.
- Food chain : It
refers to the food relation in its simplest form representing a
producer, a primary consumer, a secondary consumer and a decomposer.
- Food web : It is the network of food chains.
- Protoplasm : It refers to the living substance present in the living cells. It consists of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm.
- Nucleus : It is a dense body at the centre of the cell having nucleoplasm, chromosomes, (chromatin) and nucleolus.
- Callus : It is an unorganized and undifferentiated mass of cultured plant cells.
- Bioenergetics : It is the field of biochemistry that deals with the transformation and use of energy by living cells.
- Centriole : It is an organelle that is important in spindle formation during nuclear division in animal cells. It is absent in plant cells.