Garbage in, Garbage out
- Waste material : Every
person creates rags and throws all those things which he has used ones
and does not use it again. If he does not do so, he brings dirt along
with his/her shoes. All these things are commonly called as waste
- Sources of wastes :We
sweep houses, shops and other places, collect the dirt and other waste
materials in the polythene and throw it either in drain or at the corner
of the street.
heaps of rubbish material not only spread dirtiness but also provide
shelter for houseflies, mosquitoes, micro-organisms, bacteria and other
disease carrying living organisms.
- Landfill : Waste
material, faeces of animals, kitchen waste, garden waste etc. are
collected in dustbins from where it is thrown out into the low lying
areas for filling purpose.
waste includes bandages, cotton impulse, injection bottles, tablet
wrappers, cut out plaster, syringes, glucose bottles, needles, papers,
corks, instruments, tubes, fruit peelings and seeds.
these wastes are used for filling the low lying areas. These things
pollute the soil and are responsible for several fatal diseases.
people sort out syringes, tubes, needles and other reusable
instruments, wash them and reuse them which become the cause of many
- The filling materials diffuse in the soil and pollute the soil.
- Dustbins : The utensil or space where the waste material is collected is called as dustbin.
- Green dustbins : Generally we use green dustbin for collecting biodegradable waste.
- Blue dustbins : The non-biodegradable wastes which do not decompose naturally are kept in blue dustbin.
- Biodegradable waste : The waste matter which is not decomposing naturally is kept in blue dustbin.
- Non-biodegradable waste : The waste matter which is not decomposed by micro-organism is called as non-biodegradable waste.
edible wastes which are thrown by people in the polythene bags and
eaten up by cow, pig, dog etc. are not digested in their alimentary
canal with the result of that the cattle become patients.
- Polythene and plastics are very useful in our life but are non-biodegradable.
- Unnecessary use of plastic and polythene should be checked.
- We should try to use paper and jute bags as much as possible.
- ‘3.R’ : We
should use ‘3.R’ for checking the increase of waste matter. The first
‘R’ means ‘Reduce use’ is ‘Recycling’. We should use things in maximum
which are biodegradable.
- Compost : The manure made up by kitchen wastes and garden wastes is called as compost manure. It increases the fertility of the soil.
- Vermicomposting : Method of preparing compost with the help of redworms is called vermicomposting
- Garbage : All those used or unusable substances which cannot be reused in the same form is called garbage.
- Recycling : It is a process in which a material which has been used once, is reused to produce something.
Q.1. (a) Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the redworms?
(b) Have you seen any other organism besides redworms, in your pit? If yes,
Try to find out their names. Draw picture of these.
Non-biodegradable garbage which includes polythene bags, broken glass,
aluminium wrappers, broken toys, plastic utensils etc. are not converted
into compost by the redworms.
(b) Students should try themselves.
Q.2. Discuss :
(a) Is garbage disposal the responsibility only of the government?
(b) Is it possible to reduce the problem relating to disposal of garbage?
Q.3. (a) What do you do with the leftover food at home?
most of the cities the responsibility of garbage disposal is on
Municipal Corporations and most of the people realize no responsibility
of their own. We should realize that the cleanliness is the collective
responsibility of both the people and the government. If people are not
aware of their responsibilities only government cannot successfully
manage the garbage disposal. We must have correct idea and we must try
our best to make our surroundings clean. We should not throw our wastes
here and there. We should manage disposal problems at the level of our
mohallas rather than waiting for government efforts.
It is possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage.
We can try three ‘Rs’ to reduce this problem. These are :
- Reduce use. We should minimize the use of things that produce wastes.
- Reuse.We can reuse many things which we usually through after using once.
can recycle the things that we usually through and make many useful
things, e.g., paper can be recycled to make paper baskets etc.
(b) If you and your friends are given the choice of eating in a plastic plate or
a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?
Q.4. (a) Collect pieces of different kinds of paper. Find out which of these can be recycled.
usually throw the leftover food outside our homes. But kitchen-wastes
are biodegradable by micro-organism into useful products. So leftover
food at home should be dumped into compost pits so that it gets
converted into manure after some days.
will prefer banana leaf platter. This is because banana leaf platter is
biodegradable and adds no problem in disposal while a plastic plate is
non-biodegradable and adds a lot of difficulties in disposal causing
With the help of a lens look at the pieces of paper you collected for
the above question. Do you see any difference in the material of
recycled paper and a new sheet of paper?
(iv) Shiny plastic coated paper.
- We can collect following kinds of paper:
- Old newspapers, (ii) Magazines, (iii) Used envelopes, (iv) Notebooks and
Q.5. (a) Collect different kinds of packaging material. What was the purpose for which each one was used? Discuss in groups.
- Yes, surface of recycle paper is rough while that of new sheet of paper is smooth.
(b) Give an example in which packaging could have been reduced?
(c) Write a story on how packaging increases the amount of garbage.
Ans. Students please try yourself.
Q.6. Do you think it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers? Why?
Ans. Yes.Compost is better to use instead of chemical fertilizers because;
is eco-friendly while chemical fertilizers destroy the natural
composition of soil and have adverse effect on human health.
production of compost is cheap, easy and harmless while that of
chemical fertilizers is costlier, problem making, i.e., and pollution to
ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1. Where is waste material stored in your home?
Ans. The waste material is stored in polythene bags and in the dustbins.
Q.2. Where is this waste material thrown?
Ans. This waste material is thrown in selected empty place or waste material bins.
Q.3. From where do the things written above come into the waste material?
things written above come into the waste material through the various
activities performed at home and from the waste material produced during
Q.4. Find out where is the waste material taken and who does this work?
waste material is taken to places which have to be filled and this work
is done by Municipal Corporation of different cities.
Q.5. Why is it harmful to burn leaves?
Ans. On burning, the leaves pollute the atmosphere. There will not be any compost manure.
Q.6. Name two substances that are difficult to dispose of.
Ans. Plastic, Polythene, Lead batteries, Glass, Rubber etc., are difficult to dispose of.
Q.7. What is waste?
Ans. All those used and unusable substances which cannot be reused in the same form is called waste.
Q.8. Where can you store the waste?
Ans. The waste material can be stored in polythene bags, dustbins in the corners of houses.
Q.9. Where is the waste generally be thrown by the people?
people throw the waste material in the drains, at the corners of
streets and roads, at empty places, just behind the residence or any
other place like in parks.
Q.10. From where the waste material is brought in dustbin?
Ans. Mostly the waste material is brought to the dustbin from houses, shops, roads, industries etc.
Q.11. Which animals do you find to visit the heaps of waste?
Ans. The following animals are mostly found visiting heaps of waste materials:
Dogs, Cows, Oxen, Pigs, Crows, Houseflies, Mosquitoes.
Q.12. What is a dustbin?
Ans. The utensil or space in which the waste material is stored is called as dustbin.
Q.13. How many types of dustbins are formed for convenience?
Ans. There are two types of dustbins:
You must have seen children collecting things from waste material. Talk
to these children and find out that by selling which things from this
waste material they get money.
- The green color dustbin is used for biodegradable waste.
- The blue color dustbin is used for non-biodegradable waste.
collect plastic bags, broken toys of plastics, piece of paper,
cardboard, newspapers, old books, broken things of iron etc., from the
waste material to get money.
Q.15. What will you do if
waste material is not picked from the waste material bin near your
house? Will you cover your nose while passing along side it? What else?
will cover our nose while passing through it but with it we will make a
complaint to the officer of Municipal Corporation and tell him to make
an arrangement of cleaning the waste material.
Q.16. (i) See the waste material of your house and find out what is in the waste material.
(ii) Approximately how many kilograms is the waste material?
(iii) How much waste material is produced per person per day?
thewastematerial there are peels of vegetables, fruits, pieces of
paper, sand, plastic bags, broken things of glass, broken things of iron
(ii) Waste material is approximately 2 kilograms.
(iii) Everyday about half kg waste material is produced per person per day.
What waste products except syringes, and injection, needles are
produced from various activities performed in the hospital?
syringes and injection, needles, bottles of medicines, cotton pieces
soaked with blood, medicines, bandages etc. are the waste products
produced from various activities performed in the hospital.
Q.18. Why is the water from hand pumps in Metro / cities unfit for drinking?
In Metro / cities, sometimes the sewer water enters the drinking water
pipe through diffusion directly or through soil particles from where it
mixes with water table and pollutes it.
2. In undeveloped colonies
residents make the safety tank underground through which dirty water
diffuse in the soil and then mixes with the water of water table with
the result of that the hand pump water contains foul smell and
Q.19. If the quantity of rubbish continues to grow, what will happen to landfills?
quantity of rubbish is increasing rapidly, the filling areas will be
filled up quickly. The poisonous and harmful substances present in the
rubbish will gradually mix with the water of water table. The whole
atmosphere will be polluted and full of foul smell and the beauty of the
nearby area will be affected.
Q.20. Make a list of waste product produced from an industry. Are all the waste products of no use?
Ans. The waste products produced from an industry are :
No, all the waste products are not useless.
- Empty boxes and bottles
- Chemical substances
- Waste material
- Broken things of iron
- Bags of plastics
Q.21. If you do not clean the dustbin for many days, what will you observe and feel?
Ans. If the waste material is kept in the dustbin, we shall observe and fell the following:
Q.22. What will you find in the hospital waste?
- Bad smell in air of atmosphere.
- There will be an increase in the number of houseflies and mosquitoes.
- The beauty of the surroundings will be affected.
Ans. The following things are found in the heap of hospital waste :
Syringe (ii) Needles (iii) Glucose bottles (iv) Saline bottles (v)
Cotton with blood (v) Pieces of plaster (vii) Ampoules (viii)
Injection bottles (ix) Broken instruments (x) Empty paper box
(xi) Tablet wrapper (xii) Rotten parts and peels of fruits and
vegetables (xiii) Polythene bags.
Q.23. Your locality
faces the problem of waste disposal. How will you convince your
neighbors that making compost is the solution?
of your street will believe you only when they will see that in
practice. So you dig a pit at open place at one corner of your colony
and ask all the residents of the street to throw their kitchen waste in
this pit and cover it with soil. Cover it with the mixture of soil and
dung 5-6 weeks later open the pit and show it to them that their
disposed material has converted into compost manure.
Q.24. Have a discussion about the uses and harmful effects of plastics in our daily lives.
Uses of plastic :
1. Plastic goods like, containers, boxes, jars, etc., are used for keeping edible goods. They do not spoil.
2. The goods in plastic pack can be carried anywhere easily.
3. Plastic pickings are light in weight, good looking, cheap and best and durable.
4. No chemical effect on it.
Demerits of plastic :
(i) Plastic bags do not compose in soil and cause decreasing of fertility.
Mostly people fill the peelings and rotten fruits and vegetables in
plastic bags. They throw them on roads in drains or in fixed dustbins
from where cattle like/cows, dogs, pigs bulls etc. eat them with plastic
bags. These bags are not digested.
Q.25. Think some
handicraft materials which are prepared by waste materials. Construct
them with the help of your teacher and friends.
Ans. The following things can be prepared by the waste material :
Students can prepare any other models with the help of their parents, teachers, friends, brothers, sisters and relatives.
- Several designs and sceneries can be prepared on cardboard with the help of pencil scrub.
- We can prepare baskets, toys, vase, golak etc., with the help of smash.
- Egg trays can be decorated with the help of different colors and can be used as wall hangings.
a wet empty earthen cup (Kullarh). Make small holes in its walls with
the help of iron nail. It is called as Janjhi in which we put a burnt
candle. Light comes out in different designs.
- Flower vase is prepared with the help of ice-cream sticks.
- Different types of drawings are prepared on the broken rings and paper.
- Several types of toys are prepared with the help of plastic cup, spoon, plate, forks.
- Historical monuments are designed with the help of empty injection bottles and ampulses.
What are the waste products in the garbage produced by your school?
Make a detailed plan on how these can be reduced and reused?
Ans. List of waste materials produced in the school :
- Pencil scrubs.
- Dropout leaves and twigs.
- Fruit peels and flower waste.
- Paper containers and loose and torn waste paper of exercise notebook and diaries.
- Chalk pieces, chalk boxes.
- Faeces and urine.
- Ash, soil, acid, soap etc.
all the biodegradable wastes in a pit at one corner of the school
compound with soil. Spray some quantity of water. When this pit is full
of material cover it with a mixture of dung and clay for few weeks. An
odour starts coming out from the pit. It shows that all the material has
been converted into compost manure.
- Rubber gloves etc.
- Plastic and Geometrical instruments.
- Broken glass wares.
- Plastic and polythene containers.
- Wrappers of toffee and biscuits.
The non-biodegradable wastes can be sold to waste paper buyer.
Q.27. What things can you see in waste material? Make a list of these things from a dustbin.
Ans. The lists of things seen in the waste material are :
- Broken plastic bottles
- Spoiled and rotten fruits and vegetables
- Peels of vegetables and fruits
- Pieces of paper
- Broken buckets
- Body parts and body of dead animals
- Broken utensils
- Old clothes
- Plastic bags
- Broken things of plastics
- Rotten pieces of roti and food materials.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with that in Column B :
- Give out harmful gases on burning
- Form compost
- Making things from wastes
- Land where garbage is thrown
- Method of preparing compost
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words :
Q.3. State whether the statements given below are True or False :
- …………….. is an area where the garbage is collected.
- Converting plant and animal wastes into manure is called ………… .
- We need to generate ………… waste.
- Method of making compost using …………. is called vermicomposting.
- Municipal solid waste is commonly called ………… .
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following questions:
- Paper can be recycled to get useful products.
- Drains get choked due to plastics thrown by us.
- Plastic give out harmful gases upon heating or burning.
- Redworms eat upon green leaves on trees and make compost.
- Plastics are ecofriendly.
(c) Syringe used by a doctor (d) All of these
- Which one of the following will add to garbage?
- Wrapper of a biscuit pack (b) Tin of a cold drink
(c) Eagle (d) Crow
- Which one can be used for making manure?
- Earth worms (b) House flies
(c) inside the ponds and lakes (d) near every colony
- Leaves falling from trees should be disposed by
- making compost by boiling and drying them
- making compost by vermicomposting
- any of these methods
- Garbage from cities is collected at
- landfill areas (b) riversides
(c) Animal waste (d) Kitchen waste
- Which of the following can be recycled?
- Waste paper (b) Leather shoes
(c) Aluminum foils (d) cotton
- Out of these, which one is a non-biodegradable waste
- paper (b) faecal matter
(c) Rotting, Reduce and Reuse (d) Recycle, Rain and Rotting
- 3 R means
- Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (b) Rain, Reuse and Recycle
(c) Thermocol (d) Bread
- Which among the following will not?
- Aluminum foil (b) Plastic
(c) ants (d) amoeba
- Rotting is carried out by
- Microbes (b) insects
(c) Yellow bins (d) White bins
- Materials that can be recycled are collected in
- Red bins (b) Blue bins
ANSWERES TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Match the items given in Column A with Column B :
Q.2. Fill in the blanks :
|Column A ||Column B|
| (iv) Land where garbage is thrown|
(v) Method of preparing compost
(ii) Form compost
(iii) Making things from wastes
(i) Give out harmful gases on burning
(i) Landfill (ii) composting (iii) less (iv) redworms
Q.3. True/False :
(i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) False
Q.4. Choose the correct option :
(i) (d) Garbage consists of many different types of substances and
materials, as wrappers of a biscuit pack, Tin of a cold drink, syringe
used by a doctor, tea leaves etc.
(ii) (b) Earth worms are called farmer’s friends because they convert agricultural waste into manure.
(iii) (c) Leaves falling from trees should be disposed by making compost by vermicomposting.
(iv) (a) Garbage from cities in collected at landfill areas.
(v) (a) Waste paper is renewable sources which is recycle into other useful promotes.
(vi) (c) Non-biodegradable waste are those that cannot be broken down into simpler and harm less products by microbes.
(a) Practicing 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) is a good method of
waste management and important for healthy environment.
(viii) (d) Bread is a biodegradable material.
(ix) (a) Biodegradable waste are broken down by micro-organisms.
(b) According to government scheme, materials that can be recycled are
collected in blue bins. This waste is sent directly for processing.