Garbage in, Garbage out


  1. Waste material : Every person creates rags and throws all those things which he has used ones and does not use it again. If he does not do so, he brings dirt along with his/her shoes. All these things are commonly called as waste material.
  2. Sources of wastes :We sweep houses, shops and other places, collect the dirt and other waste materials in the polythene and throw it either in drain or at the corner of the street.
  3. The heaps of rubbish material not only spread dirtiness but also provide shelter for houseflies, mosquitoes, micro-organisms, bacteria and other disease carrying living organisms.
  4. Landfill : Waste material, faeces of animals, kitchen waste, garden waste etc. are collected in dustbins from where it is thrown out into the low lying areas for filling purpose.
  5. Hospital waste includes bandages, cotton impulse, injection bottles, tablet wrappers, cut out plaster, syringes, glucose bottles, needles, papers, corks, instruments, tubes, fruit peelings and seeds.
  6. Mostly these wastes are used for filling the low lying areas. These things pollute the soil and are responsible for several fatal diseases.
  7. Many people sort out syringes, tubes, needles and other reusable instruments, wash them and reuse them which become the cause of many diseases.
  8. The filling materials diffuse in the soil and pollute the soil.
  9. Dustbins : The utensil or space where the waste material is collected is called as dustbin.
  10. Green dustbins : Generally we use green dustbin for collecting biodegradable waste.
  11. Blue dustbins : The non-biodegradable wastes which do not decompose naturally are kept in blue dustbin.
  12. Biodegradable waste : The waste matter which is not decomposing naturally is kept in blue dustbin.
  13. Non-biodegradable waste : The waste matter which is not decomposed by micro-organism is called as non-biodegradable waste.
  14. The edible wastes which are thrown by people in the polythene bags and eaten up by cow, pig, dog etc. are not digested in their alimentary canal with the result of that the cattle become patients.
  15. Polythene and plastics are very useful in our life but are non-biodegradable.
  16. Unnecessary use of plastic and polythene should be checked.
  17. We should try to use paper and jute bags as much as possible.
  18. ‘3.R’ : We should use ‘3.R’ for checking the increase of waste matter. The first ‘R’ means ‘Reduce use’ is ‘Recycling’. We should use things in maximum which are biodegradable.
  19. Compost : The manure made up by kitchen wastes and garden wastes is called as compost manure. It increases the fertility of the soil.
  20. Vermicomposting : Method of preparing compost with the help of redworms is called vermicomposting
  21.  Garbage : All those used or unusable substances which cannot be reused in the same form is called garbage.
  22.  Recycling : It is a process in which a material which has been used once, is reused to produce something.

Q.1. (a) Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the redworms?
        (b) Have you seen any other organism besides redworms, in your pit? If yes,
         Try to find out their names. Draw picture of these.

Ans. (a) Non-biodegradable garbage which includes polythene bags, broken glass, aluminium wrappers, broken toys, plastic utensils etc. are not converted into compost by the redworms.
(b) Students should try themselves.

Q.2. Discuss :

(a) Is garbage disposal the responsibility only of the government?
(b) Is it possible to reduce the problem relating to disposal of garbage?
  1. In most of the cities the responsibility of garbage disposal is on Municipal Corporations and most of the people realize no responsibility of their own. We should realize that the cleanliness is the collective responsibility of both the people and the government. If people are not aware of their responsibilities only government cannot successfully manage the garbage disposal. We must have correct idea and we must try our best to make our surroundings clean. We should not throw our wastes here and there. We should manage disposal problems at the level of our mohallas rather than waiting for government efforts.
  2. Yes. It is possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage. We can try three ‘Rs’ to reduce this problem. These are :
  3. Reduce use. We should minimize the use of things that produce wastes.
  4. Reuse.We can reuse many things which we usually through after using once.
  5. Recycle.We can recycle the things that we usually through and make many useful things, e.g., paper can be recycled to make paper baskets etc.
Q.3. (a) What do you do with the leftover food at home?
        (b) If you and your friends are given the choice of eating in a plastic plate or
         a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?
  1. We usually throw the leftover food outside our homes. But kitchen-wastes are biodegradable by micro-organism into useful products. So leftover food at home should be dumped into compost pits so that it gets converted into manure after some days.
  2. We will prefer banana leaf platter. This is because banana leaf platter is biodegradable and adds no problem in disposal while a plastic plate is non-biodegradable and adds a lot of difficulties in disposal causing pollution.
Q.4. (a) Collect pieces of different kinds of paper. Find out which of these can be recycled.
(b) With the help of a lens look at the pieces of paper you collected for the above question. Do you see any difference in the material of recycled paper and a new sheet of paper?
  1. We can collect following kinds of paper:
  2. Old newspapers, (ii)  Magazines,  (iii) Used envelopes,  (iv)  Notebooks and
              (iv) Shiny plastic coated paper.
  1. Yes, surface of recycle paper is rough while that of new sheet of paper is smooth.
Q.5. (a) Collect different kinds of packaging material. What was the purpose for which each one was used? Discuss in groups.
(b) Give an example in which packaging could have been reduced?
(c) Write a story on how packaging increases the amount of garbage.

Ans. Students please try yourself.

Q.6. Do you think it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers? Why?

Yes.Compost is better to use instead of chemical fertilizers because;
  1. Compost is eco-friendly while chemical fertilizers destroy the natural composition of soil and have adverse effect on human health.
  2. The production of compost is cheap, easy and harmless while that of chemical fertilizers is costlier, problem making, i.e., and pollution to environment.


                                                                                                                                      ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1. Where is waste material stored in your home?

Ans. The waste material is stored in polythene bags and in the dustbins.

Q.2. Where is this waste material thrown?

This waste material is thrown in selected empty place or waste material bins.

Q.3. From where do the things written above come into the waste material?

The things written above come into the waste material through the various activities performed at home and from the waste material produced during cooking.

Q.4. Find out where is the waste material taken and who does this work?

The waste material is taken to places which have to be filled and this work is done by Municipal Corporation of different cities.

Q.5. Why is it harmful to burn leaves?

On burning, the leaves pollute the atmosphere. There will not be any compost manure.

Q.6. Name two substances that are difficult to dispose of.

Plastic, Polythene, Lead batteries, Glass, Rubber etc., are difficult to dispose of.

Q.7. What is waste?

All those used and unusable substances which cannot be reused in the same form is called waste.

Q.8. Where can you store the waste?

The waste material can be stored in polythene bags, dustbins in the corners of houses.

Q.9. Where is the waste generally be thrown by the people?

Generally people throw the waste material in the drains, at the corners of streets and roads, at empty places, just behind the residence or any other place like in parks.

Q.10. From where the waste material is brought in dustbin?

Mostly the waste material is brought to the dustbin from houses, shops, roads, industries etc.

Q.11. Which animals do you find to visit the heaps of waste?

The following animals are mostly found visiting heaps of waste materials:
          Dogs, Cows, Oxen, Pigs, Crows, Houseflies, Mosquitoes.

Q.12. What is a dustbin?

The utensil or space in which the waste material is stored is called as dustbin.

Q.13. How many types of dustbins are formed for convenience?

There are two types of dustbins:

  1. The green color dustbin is used for biodegradable waste.
  2. The blue color dustbin is used for non-biodegradable waste.
Q.14. You must have seen children collecting things from waste material. Talk to these children and find out that by selling which things from this waste material they get money.

Children collect plastic bags, broken toys of plastics, piece of paper, cardboard, newspapers, old books, broken things of iron etc., from the waste material to get money.

Q.15. What will you do if waste material is not picked from the waste material bin near your house? Will you cover your nose while passing along side it? What else?

We will cover our nose while passing through it but with it we will make a complaint to the officer of Municipal Corporation and tell him to make an arrangement of cleaning the waste material.

Q.16. (i) See the waste material of your house and find out what is in the waste material.

(ii) Approximately how many kilograms is the waste material?
(iii) How much waste material is produced per person per day?

(i)In thewastematerial there are peels of vegetables, fruits, pieces of paper, sand, plastic bags, broken things of glass, broken things of iron etc.
(ii) Waste material is approximately 2 kilograms.
(iii) Everyday about half kg waste material is produced per person per day.

Q.17. What waste products except syringes, and injection, needles are produced from various activities performed in the hospital?

Except syringes and injection, needles, bottles of medicines, cotton pieces soaked with blood, medicines, bandages etc. are the waste products produced from various activities performed in the hospital.

Q.18. Why is the water from hand pumps in Metro / cities unfit for drinking?

1. In Metro / cities, sometimes the sewer water enters the drinking water pipe through diffusion directly or through soil particles from where it mixes with water table and pollutes it.
2. In undeveloped colonies residents make the safety tank underground through which dirty water diffuse in the soil and then mixes with the water of water table with the result of that the hand pump water contains foul smell and turbidity.

Q.19. If the quantity of rubbish continues to grow, what will happen to landfills?

 If quantity of rubbish is increasing rapidly, the filling areas will be filled up quickly. The poisonous and harmful substances present in the rubbish will gradually mix with the water of water table. The whole atmosphere will be polluted and full of foul smell and the beauty of the nearby area will be affected.

Q.20. Make a list of waste product produced from an industry. Are all the waste products of no use?

The waste products produced from an industry are :
  1. Empty boxes and bottles
  2. Chemical substances
  3. Smoke
  4. Waste material
  5. Broken things of iron
  6. Bags of plastics
No, all the waste products are not useless.

Q.21. If you do not clean the dustbin for many days, what will you observe and feel?

If the waste material is kept in the dustbin, we shall observe and fell the following:
  1. Bad smell in air of atmosphere.
  2. There will be an increase in the number of houseflies and mosquitoes.
  3. The beauty of the surroundings will be affected.
Q.22. What will you find in the hospital waste?

The following things are found in the heap of hospital waste :
(i)  Syringe  (ii)  Needles (iii)  Glucose bottles  (iv) Saline bottles  (v) Cotton with blood   (v) Pieces of plaster  (vii) Ampoules  (viii) Injection bottles  (ix) Broken instruments        (x) Empty paper box  (xi) Tablet wrapper  (xii) Rotten parts and peels of fruits and vegetables (xiii) Polythene bags.

Q.23. Your locality faces the problem of waste disposal. How will you convince your neighbors that making compost is the solution?

Residents of your street will believe you only when they will see that in practice. So you dig a pit at open place at one corner of your colony and ask all the residents of the street to throw their kitchen waste in this pit and cover it with soil. Cover it with the mixture of soil and dung 5-6 weeks later open the pit and show it to them that their disposed material has converted into compost manure.

Q.24. Have a discussion about the uses and harmful effects of plastics in our daily lives.


Uses of plastic :

1. Plastic goods like, containers, boxes, jars, etc., are used for keeping edible goods. They do not spoil.
2. The goods in plastic pack can be carried anywhere easily.
3. Plastic pickings are light in weight, good looking, cheap and best and durable.
4. No chemical effect on it.

Demerits of plastic :

(i) Plastic bags do not compose in soil and cause decreasing of fertility.
(ii) Mostly people fill the peelings and rotten fruits and vegetables in plastic bags. They throw them on roads in drains or in fixed dustbins from where cattle like/cows, dogs, pigs bulls etc. eat them with plastic bags. These bags are not digested.

Q.25. Think some handicraft materials which are prepared by waste materials. Construct them with the help of your teacher and friends.

The following things can be prepared by the waste material :
  1. Several designs and sceneries can be prepared on cardboard with the help of pencil scrub.
  2. We can prepare baskets, toys, vase, golak etc., with the help of smash.
  3. Egg trays can be decorated with the help of different colors and can be used as wall hangings.
  4. Take a wet empty earthen cup (Kullarh). Make small holes in its walls with the help of iron nail. It is called as Janjhi in which we put a burnt candle. Light comes out in different designs.
  5. Flower vase is prepared with the help of ice-cream sticks.
  6. Different types of drawings are prepared on the broken rings and paper.
  7. Several types of toys are prepared with the help of plastic cup, spoon, plate, forks.
  8. Historical monuments are designed with the help of empty injection bottles and ampulses.
Students can prepare any other models with the help of their parents, teachers, friends, brothers, sisters and relatives.

Q.26. What are the waste products in the garbage produced by your school? Make a detailed plan on how these can be reduced and reused?

List of waste materials produced in the school :

Biodegradable wastes

  1. Pencil scrubs.
  2. Dropout leaves and twigs.
  3. Fruit peels and flower waste.
  4. Paper containers and loose and torn waste paper of exercise notebook and diaries.
  5. Chalk pieces, chalk boxes.
  6. Faeces and urine.
  7. Ash, soil, acid, soap etc.
Non-biodegradable wastes
  1. Rubber gloves etc.
  2. Plastic and Geometrical instruments.
  3. Broken glass wares.
  4. Plastic and polythene containers.
  5. Wrappers of toffee and biscuits.
Collect all the biodegradable wastes in a pit at one corner of the school compound with soil. Spray some quantity of water. When this pit is full of material cover it with a mixture of dung and clay for few weeks. An odour starts coming out from the pit. It shows that all the material has been converted into compost manure.

The non-biodegradable wastes can be sold to waste paper buyer.

Q.27. What things can you see in waste material? Make a list of these things from a dustbin.

The lists of things seen in the waste material are :
  1. Broken plastic bottles
  2. Spoiled and rotten fruits and vegetables
  3. Peels of vegetables and fruits
  4. Pieces of paper
  5. Broken buckets
  6. Body parts and body of dead animals
  7. Broken utensils
  8. Old clothes
  9.  Plastic bags
  10. Broken things of plastics
  11. Rotten pieces of roti and food materials.

Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with that in Column B :

Column A
Column B
  1. Landfill
  2. Vermicomposting
  3. Redworms
  4.  Recycling
  5.  Plastic
  1. Give out harmful gases on burning
  2. Form compost
  3. Making things from wastes
  4. Land where garbage is thrown
  5. Method of preparing compost

Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words :

  1. …………….. is an area where the garbage is collected.
  2. Converting plant and animal wastes into manure is called ………… .
  3. We need to generate ………… waste.
  4. Method of making compost using …………. is called vermicomposting.
  5. Municipal solid waste is commonly called ………… .
Q.3. State whether the statements given below are True or False :
  1. Paper can be recycled to get useful products.
  2. Drains get choked due to plastics thrown by us.
  3. Plastic give out harmful gases upon heating or burning.
  4. Redworms eat upon green leaves on trees and make compost.
  5. Plastics are ecofriendly.
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following questions:
  1. Which one of the following will add to garbage?
  2. Wrapper of a biscuit pack                 (b) Tin of a cold drink
              (c) Syringe used by a doctor                     (d) All of these
  1. Which one can be used for making manure?
  2. Earth worms                                        (b) House flies
(c) Eagle                                                     (d) Crow
  1. Leaves falling from trees should be disposed by
  2. burning
  3. making compost by boiling and drying them
  4. making compost by vermicomposting
  5. any of these methods
  6. Garbage from cities is collected at
  7. landfill areas                                        (b) riversides
(c) inside the ponds and lakes               (d) near every colony
  1. Which of the following can be recycled?
  2. Waste paper                                         (b) Leather shoes
(c) Animal waste                                       (d) Kitchen waste
  1. Out of these, which one is a non-biodegradable waste
  2. paper                                                     (b) faecal matter
(c) Aluminum foils                                    (d) cotton
  1. 3 R means
  2. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle           (b) Rain, Reuse and Recycle
(c) Rotting, Reduce and Reuse             (d) Recycle, Rain and Rotting
  1. Which among the following will not?
  2. Aluminum foil                                     (b) Plastic
(c) Thermocol                                            (d) Bread
  1. Rotting is carried out by
  2. Microbes                                               (b) insects
(c) ants                                                        (d) amoeba
  1. Materials that can be recycled are collected in
  2. Red bins                                               (b) Blue bins
(c) Yellow bins                                           (d) White bins
Q.1. Match the items given in Column A with Column B :
Column A Column B




  (iv) Land where garbage is thrown


     (v) Method of preparing compost


(ii) Form compost


  (iii) Making things from wastes


     (i) Give out harmful gases on burning
Q.2. Fill in the blanks :
        (i) Landfill                (ii) composting            (iii) less          (iv) redworms
        (v) garbage
Q.3. True/False :
        (i) True                    (ii) True                        (iii) True         (iv) False
        (v) False.
Q.4. Choose the correct option :
  (i)   (d) Garbage consists of many different types of substances and materials, as wrappers of a biscuit pack, Tin of a cold drink, syringe used by a doctor, tea leaves etc.
  (ii)  (b) Earth worms are called farmer’s friends because they convert agricultural waste into manure.
  (iii) (c) Leaves falling from trees should be disposed by making compost by vermicomposting.
(a) Garbage from cities in collected at landfill areas.
  (v) (a) Waste paper is renewable sources which is recycle into other useful promotes.

 (vi) (c) Non-biodegradable waste are those that cannot be broken down into simpler and harm less products by microbes.
 (vii) (a) Practicing 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) is a good method of waste management and important for healthy environment.
 (viii) (d) Bread is a biodegradable material.
 (ix) (a) Biodegradable waste are broken down by micro-organisms.
 (x) (b) According to government scheme, materials that can be recycled are collected in blue bins. This waste is sent directly for processing.