 FORMULAE

Ideal Gas law
PV = nRT
n = number of moles
R = universal gas constant = 8.3145 J/mol K
Combined Gas law
 P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2
Boyle's law
P1V1 = P2V2
Charles law
 V1 = V2 T1 T2
Gay-Lussac law
 P1 = P2 T1 T2
Diffusion: Rate at which two gases mix
Graham's law of diffusion
The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of their density or the molar mass of the gas.  Effusion: Rate at which a gas escapes thru pin hole
Graham's law of effusion
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of either the density or the molar mass of the gas. Solution: Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Solute is a substance that is dissolved in the solution.
Solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. Solvent is present in greater amount.
Concentration is the ratio of solute and solvent.
Concentration can be measured using molarity, molality and mole fraction.

 Molarity (M) = moles of solute liters of solution

 Molality (m) = moles of solute kg of solution

Unit of Molarity (M) : mol/L : moles per litre
Unit of Molality (M) : mol/kg : moles per kg
Mole fraction: Mole fraction of a component in solution is the number of moles of that component divided by the total number of moles of all components in the solution.
 Mole-fraction (Xa)= molesa molesa + molesb ....

Dilution: Siluting a solution means adding more solvent in solution without the addition of more solute.

MiVi = MfVf

Mi: Molarity of solution before diluting.
Vi: Volume of solution before diluting.
Mf: Molarity of solution after diluting.
Vf: Volume of solution after diluting.

Mole: Mole is the amount of substance that contains same number of particles as there are atoms in Carbon-12. One mole of substance is Avogadro's number (i.e. 6.023 x 1023). One mole of gas has volume of 22.4 liter at STP.
Relation between moles and grams
1 mole = molecular weight of substance in grams.
Ionization Enthalpy: It is the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or molecule (i.e from low state to n=8). It is always endothermic (i.e. positive).

OR

Ionization energy: energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation:
 pH = pKa + log10 [A-] [HA]

where
[A-]: Concentration of conjugate base
[HA]: concentration of the acid

OR
 pH = pKa + log10 [Conjugate Base] [Acid]
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