WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS


                                                                       POINTS TO REMEMBER


Weather

The day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-speed, etc. is called as the weather at that place.

The weather is generally not the same on any two day, two weeks or even months.

The maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs early in the morning.

 The timing of sunrise and sunset is also change during the year because of the change in climate.

All the changes in the whether are given by the sun.

Rain gauge: Rainfall is measured by an instrument called the rain gauge..It is basically a measuring cylinder with a funnel on top collect rain water.

Elements of the weather: The temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-speed and other factors are called the elements of the weather.

Maximum and minimum temperature thermometers: Maximum and minimum temperature in a day are recorded by special thermometers called maximum and minimum thermometers.

 

Climate

The average weather pattern taken over a long time, say 25 years, called the climate of the place.

Mean temperature for a given month: The mean temperature for a given month is found in two steps. First we find the average of the temperatures recorded during in month. Second we calculate the average of such average temperatures over many years.

Different climates in India:

Northern regions of Himalayas: Cold and moderately wet.

Plains: moderately hot and wet.

South: Very hot and wet

Western region e.g., Rajasthan: Hot and dry.

North-eastern: Wet.

 

Climate and Adaptation

Some of the features and habit of the animals, help them to made some change in it to survive in the surrounding, this is call adaptation.

The tropical and the polar regions are the two regions of the earth, which have severe climatic conditions.

Animal are adapted to the conditions in which they live.

Polar region: The polar regions are very cold throughout the year. The sun does not set for six months in a year and in the other six months it does not rise.

Animal in the polar region are adapted to the extremely cold climate by having some special characteristics such as a while fur, strong sense of smell, a layer of fat under the skin, wide and large paws swimming and walking, etc.

Migration is another means to escape from the harsh, cold conditions if adaptation is not possible.

Because of the hospitable climatic conditions huge populations of plants and animals are found in the tropical rainforests.

Animals in tropical rainforests are adapted in such way that they eat different kinds of food to overcome the competition for food and shelter.

Some of the adaptive features of animals living in the tropical rainforests include: living on the trees, development of strong tails, long and large beaks, bright colours, sharp patterns, loud voice, diet of fruits, sensitive hearing, sharp eyesight, thick skin, ability to camouflage in  order protect themselves from predators, etc.

Humidity: Presence of the moisture in air is called humidity.

Tropical region: The tropical region has generally a hot and wet climate because of its location around the equator, so this region gets plenty of rain during the year.

 
 
 
Q.1. Name the elements that determine the weather of a place.

Ans:
Then elements that determine the weather of a place are:
  1. Temperature
  2. Humidity
  3. Rainfall
  4. Wind-speed etc.
 
Q.2. When are the maximum and minimum temperatures likely to occur during the day?

Ans:
the maximum temperature of the day generally occurs in the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs in the early morning.
 
Q.3. Fill in the blanks:
  1. The average weather taken over a long time is called ………….
  2. A place receives very little rainfall and the temperature is throughout the year, the climate of that place will be …………. and ………….
  3. The two regions of the earth with extreme climate condition are ………. and…………
Ans:   i.  climate                        ii. Dry, very hot
         iii.  tropical region, polar region.
 
Q.4. Indicate the type of climate of the following areas:
  1. Jammu and Kashmir: …………………………......
  2. Kerala: ……………………………………………
  3. Rajasthan ………………………………………....
  4. North-east India: ………………………………….
Ans:  a)   moderately hot and moderately wet
          b)  very hot and wet
          c)  hot and dry
          d)  wet
 
Q.5. Which of the two changes frequently, weather or climate?

Ans:
It isweather that changes frequently, because it is such complex phenomenon that it can vary over very short periods of time.
 
Q.6. Following are some of the characteristics of animals:
         i.Diets heavy on fruits                      ii. White fur
       iii. Need to migrate                            iv. Laud voice
       v. Sticky pads on feet                         vi. Layer of fat under skin
     vii. Wide and large paws                    viii. Bright colours
      ix. Strong tails                                      x.  Long and large beak
      For each characteristic indicate whether it is adaptation for tropical rainforest pr polar regions. Do you think that some of these characteristics
       can be adapted for both regions?
Ans:
CharacteristicsAdaptation for tropical rainforest/polar regions
  1. Diets heavy on fruits
  2. White fur
  3. Need to migrate
  4. Loud voice
  5. Sticky pads on feet
  6. Layer of fat under skin
  7. Wide and large paws
  8. Bright colours
  9. Strong tails
  10. Long and large beak
 
Tropical rainforest
Polar regions
Polar regions
Tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
Polar regions
Polar regions
Tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
 
 
 
Q.7. The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals. Explain why it is so.

Ans:
Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals. The climatic conditions in rainforests are highly supportive and suitable for providing condition to an enormous number and variety of animals. 
 
Q.8. Explain, with examples, why we find animals of certain kind living in particular climatic conditions.

Ans:
Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live. Features and habit that help animals to adapt to their surroundings are a result of the process of evolution. Since to survive in a particular type of climate all the animals must have certain adaptive features therefore we find animals of certain kind living in a particular climate conditions. For example, animal in the polar region are adapted to the extremely cold climate by having some special characteristics such as a white fur, strong sense of smell, a layer of fat under their skin, wide and large paws for swimming and walking etc.
 
Q.9. How do elephant living in the tropical rainforest adapt itself?

Ans:
The elephant has adapted the conditions of rainforests in many remarkable ways, look at its trunk. It uses it as nose because of which it has a strong sense of smell. The trunk is also used by it for picking up food. Moreover, its tusks are modified teeth. These can tear the bark of trees that elephant loves to eat. So, the elephant is able to handle the competition for food rather well. Large ears of the  elephant helps it to hear even very soft sounds. They also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the rainforest.
 
Choose the correct option which answers of the following questions:
 
Q.10. A carnivore with stripes on its body moves very fast while catching its prey. It is likely to be found in
           i. polar region                                      ii. Deserts
         iii. oceans                                             iv. Tropical rainforests

Ans:
  iv. Tropical rainforests
 
Q.11. Which features adapt polar bears to live extremely cold climate?
           i. A while fur, fat below skin, keen sense of smell.
          ii. Thin skin, large eyes, a while fur.
         iii. A long tail, strong claws, white large paws.
         iv. White body paws for swimming gills for respiration.

Ans:  i.
A while fur, fat below skin, keen sense of smell.
 
Q.12. Which option best describes a tropical region?
         i.hot and humid                               ii. Moderate temperature, heavy rainfall
       iii. cold and humid                            iv. Hot and dry

Ans:
i. hot and humid.
 
 
 
ACTIVITIES BASED QUSTIONS
 
Q.1. Collect weather reports of seven successive days in the winter months
(preferably December). Collect similar reports for the summer months
(preferably June). Now prepare a table for sunrise and sunset times as shown:

Table
JuneDecember
DateSunriseSunsetDateSunriseSunset
      
      
 
Try to answers the following questions:
  1. Is there any difference in the time of sunrise during summer and winter?
  2. When do you find that sun rises earlier?
  3. Do you also find any difference in the time of sunset during the month of June and December?
  4. When are the days longer?
  5. When are the nights longer?
  6. Why are the days sometimes longer and sometimes shorter?
  7. Plot the length of the day against the days chosen in June and December. (Instructions for plotting graphs are given in chapter 13).
Solution. Students please prepare the table by your own observation but for your convenience, hints are given below:
  1. Yes
  2. The sun rise earlier in summer.
  3. Yes, the sun sets earlier in the month of December.
  4. Days are longer in summer.
  5. Nights are longer in winter.
  6. Length of the day is longer in summers and shorter in winter. The length depends upon the path of revolution of the earth around the sun, i.e., the distance of the earth from the sun.
  7. Do yourself.
 
 
ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1. By which instrument rainfall is measured?


Ans:
Rain Gauge.
 
Q.2. Name of the thermometer used to record maximum and minimum temperature in a day.

Ans:
Maximum and minimum thermometer.
 
Q.3 What is the main cause of the changes of weather?

Ans:
All changes in the weather depends upon the path revolution of earth around the sun.

Q.4. The weather pattern of nearly how many years is called the climate of the place?


Ans:
25 years.
 
Q.5. What is the difference in the climate of Kerala and Kashmir?

Ans:
Kerala is a very hot and wet while Kashmir is moderately hot and moderately wet.
 
Q.6. Name the two regions of the earth which have severe climatic conditions.

Ans:
The two region of the earth, having severe climate conditions are:
         i. Tropical region and ii. Polar regions.
 
Q.7. Name some countries that belong in polar regions.

Ans:
Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Alaska in USA and Siberian regions of Russia.
 
Q.8. Give the names of some countries where the tropical rainforests are found.

Ans:
India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, Republic of Congo, Kenya, Yuganda and Nigeria.
 
Q.9.  Name some animal found in polar regions.

Ans:
Polar bear, penguins, musk oxen, reindeers, foxes, seals, whales etc.
 
Q.10. To which places in India does the Siberian crane migrate in winters?

Ans:
The two important places are there: (i) Bharatpur in Rajasthan, (ii) Sultanpur in Haryana.
 
Q.11. Name the major types of animals living in the rainforests.

Ans:
Monkeys, apes, gorillas, lions, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects.
 
Q.12. What kind of adaptation does the bird Toucan have to get the food?

Ans
: It possesses a long,large beak. This helps it to reach the fruits on branches which are even if too weak to support its weight.
 
Q.13. What kind of information does daily weather report carries?

Ans:
Daily weather report carries information about the temperature, humidity and rainfall during the last 24 hours. It also predicts the weather for the day.

 
WEATHER FORECAST
DELHI
Today                                                                                                    ALMANAC
                    A nippy with shallow fag                                           Today is 19th February 2007 01
                    To start the week. A comfortable                                      Safer 1428
                    day. Possibility of thundery activity                                Falgun Shuklapksha 02
                    in the evening/night. High 24ºC                                       Samvat 2063
                   (-1ºC), low 13ºC (+3ºC), Max R.H.                                    Sunset on Monday 6: 14 p.m.
                    88%                                                                                        Sunrise on Tuesday 6: 56a.m.
Tomorrow                                                                                               Moonrise on Monday 07:57 p.m
                   A cool morning with shallow fog.                                     Moonset on Tuesday 09:19 a.m.
                   The day to remain comfortable for
                   Socializing. A nippy night is likely         FOR THE RECORD
                   High 25ºC, low 12ºC.                              DELHI: Sunday’s temperature max 24.2ºC,
Wednesday                                                                min 9.3ºC.Max R.H. 90%, Min R. H. 32%
                  The sky is expected to be mainly             INDIA:
                  Clear. A warm and sunny day. The         Coldest in Plains: Saharanpur, UP, 07ºC
                  Night is likely to be cool and misty.        Hottest: Punalur, Kerala, 36ºC.
                  High 26ºC, low 12ºC.                              Wettest: Srinagar, J &K.
  
   
 Q.14. What is the weather? What are it’s elements?
Ans: The day to day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the   temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-speed etc., is called the weather of that place. The temperature, humidity, and other factors are called the elements of the weather.
 
 
 
Q.15. Distinguish between weather and climate.
Ans.
WeatherClimate
  1. It is day to day condition of the atmosphere at a place.
  2. It can vary over very short periods of time.
  3. It cannot force adaptations in the organisms.
     
  1. It is the average weather pattern taken over a log time.
  2. It does not vary in short periods.
 
  1. It forces adaptations in the organisms.
 
 
Q.16. How do we find mean temperature for a given month?
Ans: The mean temperature for a given month is found in two ways. First we find the average of the temperature recorded during the month. Second we calculate the average of such average temperatures over many years. That gives the means temperature.
 
Q.17. Describe in brief the main features of the climate of polar regions.
Ans: These regions are covered with snow and it is very cold for the most part of the years. For six month the sun does not set at the poles while for the other six months the sun does not rise. In winters the temperature can be as low as -37ºC.
 
Q.18. How penguin are adapted for cold climate?
Ans: To survive in severe cold conditions penguins have the following characteristics:
  1. It is white and merges well with the white background.
  2. It has a thick skin and a lot of fat under it to protect it from cold.
  3. They often huddled together to remain warm.
  4. Their bodies are streamlined and their feet have webs, making them good swimmers.


Fig. 7.2 Penguins huddled together                                          Fig. 7.3. Feet of penguin
 
Q.19. Why the bards in cold climate migrate to warmer regions in winters?
Ans: Birds must remain warm to survive. They migrate to warmer regions when winter set in. They comeback after the winter is over. For example, the heards of Siberian crane come from Siberia to the places like Bharatpur in Rajasthan and Sultanpur in Haryana in India.
 
 
Q.20. Describe in brief the climate of tropical regions.
Ans: The tropical regions has generally a hot climate because of its location around the equator, So this regions get plenty of rain during the year. Even in the coldest month, the temperature is generally higher than about 15ºC. During hot summers, the temperature may cross 40ºC.  Day and night are almost equal in throughout the years.
 
Q.21. Describe various adaptations in polar bear. How these adaptations help them to survive in extreme cold climate?
Ans: Polar bears are adapted to cold climate in the following ways:
  1. Polar bears have white fur so that they are not easily visible in the snowy white background.
It protects them from their predators. It also helps them in catching the prey.
  1. To protect them from extreme cold, they have two thick layers of fur.
  2. They also have a layer of fat under their skin. In fact, they are so well insulated that they have to move slowly and rest often to avoid getting overheated.
  3. Physical activities on warm days necessitate cooling. So, the polar bear goes for swimming. It is a good swimmer. Its paws are wide and large, which help it not only to swim well but also walk with ease in snow. While swimming under water it can close its nostrils and can remain under for long durations.
  4. It has a strong sense of smell so that it can catch it’s prey for food.

                                    Fig.7.4. Adaptations of polar bear
 
Q.22.  How the animals in tropical rainforest are adapted? Explain giving some examples.
Ans: The climatic conditions in rainforest are highly suitable for supporting an enormous and variety of animals.
Since the number is large, there is intense competition for food and shelter.
Many animals are adapted to live in trees. Red-eyed frog (fig.7.5) has developed sticky pads on its feet which help it to climb trees on which it lives. To survive, flourish and live happily on trees monkeys (fig. 7.7) have long tails for grasping branches. Their hands and feet are such that they can easily hold on to branches.
 



Fig. 7.5. Red-eyed frog                                                                                                 fig. 7.6. Toucan
 



Fig. 7.7. A new world of monkey
 
    
         As there is competition for food, some animals are adapted to get food which are at heights of the trees and not easily reachable, e.g., bird Toucan (fig 7.6) possesses a long, large beak.
         Many tropical animals have sensitive hearing, sharp eye sight, thick skin and different skin colours which helps them to camouflage by blending with the surroundings, This is to protect them from predators as well as help them to catch prey. For example, big cats (lines and tigers) have thick skins and sensitive hearing.
 
 
Q.23. Explain various adaptive features in line-tailed macaque and Indian elephant.
Ans:  i. The lion-tailed macaque. It lives in the rainforest of Western Ghats (fig.7.8). Its main feature is the sliver-white mane, which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to its chin. It is a good climber and spents a major parts of its life on the tree. It feeds on mainly the fruits. It also eat other parts of the plants like young leaves, stems, flower and buds. This beard ape also searches for insects under the bark of trees.  
      
    ii. Indian elephant. It has adapted the conditions of rainforests in many ways. It has long truck (Fig. 7.9). It uses its truck as a nose because of which it has a strong sense of smell. The truck is also used by it for picking up food. Moreover, its tusks are modified teeth. These can tear the bark of trees that elephant loves to eat. So, the elephant is able to handle the competition for food rather well. Large ears of the elephant help it to hear even very soft sounds. They also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the rainforest.


                       
Fig. 7.8. Lion-tailed Macaque                                                    Fig. 7.9. An Indian Elephant
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1. Match the item given under Column I with those given in Column II.
Column IColumn II
  1. Polar bear
  2. Penguins
  3. Birds
  4. Red-eyes Frog
  5. Toucan
  6. Lion-tailed Macaque
  7. Elephant
  8. New world monkey
  1. Trunk and tusks
  2. Long, large beak
  3. Long tail
  4. Silver-white mane
  5. Sticky pads on its feet
  6. Long curved and strong clown
  7. Migrate to warmer region
  8. Feets have web
 
Q.2. Fill in the blank space in the following statements:
  1. The maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in the …………
  2. In winter of polar regions the temperature can be as low as ……………
  3. …………. have white fur. It protect them from predators.
  4. Like polar bears………… are also good swimmers.
  5. ………….. must remain warm to survive. They migrate to …………. regions when winter set in.
  6. Red-eyed frog lives on ……………….
  7. …………… possesses a long, large beak.
  8. Elephant uses its …………… as a nose.
 
Q.3. Choose the true and false statements from the following:
  1. Weather can vary over very short periods of time.
  2. In Rajasthan typical desert climate is found.
  3. All the changes in the weather are driven by the moon.
  4. The polar regions are very cold throughout the year.
  5. A layer of fat under skin is an adaptation against extremely hot climate.
  6. Migration mean to escape the harsh, cold conditions.
  7. Tusks of the elephant are the modified teeth.
  8. Lion-tailed macaque feeds mainly fruits.
 
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following:


i. Which among the following is generally not predicted in a daily weather report?

a) Temperature                                             b) Pressure
c) Humidity                                                  d) Rainfall


 
ii.Weather changes

a) week after week                                       b) day after day
c) within a short period                                d) all of these

 
iii. Rainfall is measured by

a) rain gauge
b) water level increase in ponds
c) water level increase in water table
d) none of the above
 

iv. Maximum temperature of the day occurs generally in

a) When the sun rises                                  b) in mid noon
c) afternoon                                                d) When the sun set
 

v. All the changes of weather are caused by

a) The earth                                                b) The moon
c) The stars                                                d) The sun
 

vi. The average weather pattern taken over a long time is called the climate of the place. Here long time means


a) 5 years                                                   b) 10 years
c) 25 years                                                 d) 50 years
 

vii.  Which of the following part of India has not and dry climate?

a) Kashmir                                                b) Rajasthan
c) Kerala                                                   d) North-East region
 

viii. Which of the following climate is found in Kerala?

a) Very hot and wet
b) Hot and dry
c) Moderately hot and moderately dry
d) Wet
 

ix. Which of the following country has tropical rainforest?

a) Norway                                                b) Canada
c) Sweden                                                d) None of these
 

x. Which of the following countries has not extreme cold climate?

a) Finland                                                 b) Greenland
c) Indonesia                                             d) All of these
 

xi. Which of the following is not an adaptive feature in polar bear?

a) White fur                                              b) Strong sense of smell
c) Long curved and sharp claws              d) long tail
 

xii.  Which is the characteristics feature of tropical rainforests?


a) Hot and humid climate
b) Enormous number and variety of animals
c) Competition for food and shelter
d) All of these
 

xiii. Presence of the moisture in air is called humidity?


a) Tropical region                                     b) climate
c) Humidity                                              d) evaporation


xiv. By which instrument rainfall is measured


a) Barometer                                          b) Rain Gauge
c) Hydrometer                                       d) Thermometer
 

xv. Which one is not found in polar regions?



a) Penguins                                            b) Musk oxen
c) Foxes                                                 d) Dogs
 
 
ANSWERS TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1. Match the items in Column I with Column II:
Column IColumn II
  1. Polar bear
  2. Penguins
  3. Birds
  4. Red-eyed Frog
  5. Toucan
  6. Lion-tailed Macaque
  7. Elephant
  8. New world monkey
f . Long curved and strong clown
h. feets have web
g. migrate to warmer regions
e. sticky pads on its feet
b. long, large beak
d. silver-white mane
a. trunk and tusks
c. long tail
 
 
Q.2. Fill in the blanks:
       i. afternoon                       ii. -37ºC                              iii. Polar bear
     iv. Penguins                        v. Birds, warmer                vi. Trees
    vii. Toucan                        viii. Truck
 
Q.3.  True/False:
     i. True                 ii. True            iii. False         iv. True           v. False
   vi. True               vii. True          viii. True.
 
Q.4. Choose the correct options:
     i. (a)                   ii. (d)                iii. (a)             iv. (c)              v. (d)
   vi. (c)                  vi. (b)              viii. (a)             ix. (a)              x. (c)
   xi. (d)                 xii. (d)             xiii. (a)            xiv. (b)            xv. (d)