Understanding Our Blood Test
Calcium and Phosphorous
is a substance that is vital in the metabolism, formation and strength
of bones, in maintaining normal blood clotting and in the transmission
of nerve impulses, including those in the heart. Phosphorous acts with
calcium in many of the same functions, but in addition it is involved
with the energy use in the body. These two minerals have a reciprocal
relationship in the blood. In other words, when the serum calcium is
high, the phosphorous is low, and vice verse. Calcium and phosphorous
level are measured routinely in the automated processing of the blood.
Alkaline Phosphatase is
an enzyme found in many different organs of the body, but for the most
part in the liver and bone. Its measurement facilitates a useful index
of liver and bone disease. It reaches high levels when there is
obstruction to the outflow of bile from the liver, and the values return
to normal when the blockage clears. The level of this enzyme are also
increased in any disorder of bone that.
is study of lakes and other bodies of open fresh water, in terms of
their plan and animal biology, and their physical properties.
Causes breakdown of the skeletal structure and release of the enzyme, in fractures and in growing children.
: The concentration of urea nitrogen in the blood is a key test of
kidney function. Protein is constantly being used and broken down in the
body. The end product of that process is urea, which is formed in the
liver. When a great deal of protein has to be broken down quickly, the
kidneys have to excrete it in massive levels, thereby causing a high
blood urea level. Even healthy kidneys sometimes cannot cope with such
situation. This may also be induced by some drugs. These include
diuretics. Some antibiotics, sedatives and some blood pressure-lowering
Albumin is an important protein with
many functions, and it is synthesized in the liver. By its physical
presence in the blood, it draws fluid to it and keeps it within the
blood vessels, and thus it affects the blood pressure. If the albumin
level is high, this can indicate kidney disease; in pregnant woman, high
levels of albumin are potentially dangerous for both the expectant
mother and the unborn child. When albumin level is too low, fluid passes
out of the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues. It results in
generalized swelling. A low albumin level occurs in severe liver
disease, in kidney disease and in severe malnutrition.
is another blood protein, physically larger than albumin. Lime calcium
and phosphorous, albumin and globulin are measured together, even though
the lever makes only a small amount of total body globulins. Their main
function is related to our defence mechanisms, providing immunity
against infections A chronic infection or a festering cancer, each of
which is constantly challenging the body to defend itself, stimulates
the production of more globulin.
derived from the red blood cells, which survive in the body for about
120 days. Although bilirubin is not made in the liver, it is none the
less a very important test of liver function. The spleen is the main
mortuary of bilirubin. After its disintegration in the spleen, the
bilirubin pigment goes to the liver to be excreted . Excessive red cell
breakdown means a large excreted, more than even a healthy liver can
a mineral found in high concentration in every cell of the body, as
well as in the bloodstream, where it can be measured. Particularly low
levels of potassium may be found, a result of the body losing it,
possibly due to chronic diarrhea, certain kinds of kidney disease, over
production of corticosteroid hormones in the body and the use of
diuretics which cause increased urination.
Cholesterol : Cholesterol,
a fat-like substance that you have flowing in your arteries, is
measured easily by means of a simple, inexpensive blood test. A high
cholesterol level may be a contributory factor in arteriosclerosis and
may also be due to specific malfunctions of the body, as, for example,
kidney disease or low thyroid function. A low cholesterol level may
reflect liver disease, since it is made in the liver, but may also be
due to acute infections, starvation, an overactive thyroid, etc.
SGPT and SGOT
which stands for Serum Glutamic Pyruuic Transaminase, is an enzyme
found in many organs and tissues. Its measurement is useful as an index
of liver disease. When the liver is not working properly, the SGPT level
in the blood increases.
Another enzyme, SGOT – Serum Gluetamic
Oxalacetic Transaminase – is also present in the liver but is found in
large quantities in heart muscle as well.
Both SGPT and SGOT
appear in a higher than normal concentration in the blood when there is
damage to cells that contain them; the cell walls become permeable and
allow the enzymes to escape into the bloodstream. When the liver is
injured, both the SGOT and SGPT are elevated. Soon after a heart attack,
the SGOT from the heart is increased, but the SGPT remains normal. If
you’ve had chest pain that is not typical of heart trouble, and the
electrocardiogram does not give definite reading, the doctor will
measure the levels of both enzymes. When the SGOT is elevated and the
SGPT is normal, the trouble lies in the heart or other muscle and not
the liver. In addition, newer, more sensitive enzyme determinations are
now available and are used specifically for coronary patients.