Understanding Our Blood Test
Calcium and Phosphorous

Calcium is a substance that is vital in the metabolism, formation and strength of bones, in maintaining normal blood clotting and in the transmission of nerve impulses, including those in the heart. Phosphorous acts with calcium in many of the same functions, but in addition it is involved with the energy use in the body. These two minerals have a reciprocal relationship in the blood. In other words, when the serum calcium is high, the phosphorous is low, and vice verse. Calcium and phosphorous level are measured routinely in the automated processing of the blood.

Alkaline Phosphatase
is an enzyme found in many different organs of the body, but for the most part in the liver and bone. Its measurement facilitates a useful index of liver and bone disease. It reaches high levels when there is obstruction to the outflow of bile from the liver, and the values return to normal when the blockage clears. The level of this enzyme are also increased in any disorder of bone that.

Limnology is study of lakes and other bodies of open fresh water, in terms of their plan and animal biology, and their physical properties.
Causes breakdown of the skeletal structure and release of the enzyme, in fractures and in growing children.
Urea Nitrogen  :  The concentration of urea nitrogen in the blood is a key test of kidney function. Protein is constantly being used and broken down in the body. The end product of that process is urea, which is formed in the liver. When a great deal of protein has to be broken down quickly, the kidneys have to excrete it in massive levels, thereby causing a high blood urea level. Even healthy kidneys sometimes cannot cope with such situation. This may also be induced by some drugs. These include diuretics. Some antibiotics, sedatives and some blood pressure-lowering agents.

Albumin is an important protein with many functions, and it is synthesized in the liver. By its physical presence in the blood, it draws fluid to it and keeps it within the blood vessels, and thus it affects the blood pressure. If the albumin level is high, this can indicate kidney disease; in pregnant woman, high levels of albumin are potentially dangerous for both the expectant mother and the unborn child. When albumin level is too low, fluid passes out of the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues. It results in generalized swelling. A low albumin level occurs in severe liver disease, in kidney disease and in severe malnutrition.

is another blood protein, physically larger than albumin. Lime calcium and phosphorous, albumin and globulin are measured together, even though the lever makes only a small amount of total body globulins. Their main function is related to our defence mechanisms, providing immunity against infections A chronic infection or a festering cancer, each of which is constantly challenging the body to defend itself, stimulates the production of more globulin.

is derived from the red blood cells, which survive in the body for about 120 days. Although bilirubin is not made in the liver, it is none the less a very important test of liver function. The spleen is the main mortuary of bilirubin. After its disintegration in the spleen, the bilirubin pigment goes to the liver to be excreted . Excessive red cell breakdown means a large excreted, more than even a healthy liver can handle.

Potassium is a mineral found in high concentration in every cell of the body, as well as in the bloodstream, where it can be measured. Particularly low levels of potassium may be found, a result of the body losing it, possibly due to chronic diarrhea, certain kinds of kidney disease, over production of corticosteroid hormones in the body and the use of diuretics which cause increased urination.

Cholesterol :  Cholesterol, a fat-like substance that you have flowing in your arteries, is measured easily by means of a simple, inexpensive blood test. A high cholesterol level may be a contributory factor in arteriosclerosis and may also be due to specific malfunctions of the body, as, for example, kidney disease or low thyroid function. A low cholesterol level may reflect liver disease, since it is made in the liver, but may also be due to acute infections, starvation, an overactive thyroid, etc.


SGPT, which stands for Serum Glutamic Pyruuic Transaminase, is an enzyme found in many organs and tissues. Its measurement is useful as an index of liver disease. When the liver is not working properly, the SGPT level in the blood increases.

Another enzyme, SGOT – Serum Gluetamic Oxalacetic Transaminase – is also present in the liver but is found in large quantities in heart muscle as well.

Both SGPT and SGOT appear in a higher than normal concentration in the blood when there is damage to cells that contain them; the cell walls become permeable and allow the enzymes to escape into the bloodstream. When the liver is injured, both the SGOT and SGPT are elevated. Soon after a heart attack, the SGOT from the heart is increased, but the SGPT remains normal. If you’ve had chest pain that is not typical of heart trouble, and the electrocardiogram does not give definite reading, the doctor will measure the levels of both enzymes. When the SGOT is elevated and the SGPT is normal, the trouble lies in the heart or other muscle and not the liver. In addition, newer, more sensitive enzyme determinations are now available and are used specifically for coronary patients.