NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILISATION
  • Atmosphere : Mixture of several gases near the earth surface. It contains the nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (0.95%), Krypton (0.001%), Xenon (0.00001%) and some other gases in traces.
  • Clay soil : Heavy soil containing large amount of clay particles mixed with silt and humus.
  • Cloud : Mass of for, minute frozen particles of water found floating in air, about 2 to 12 km. above the earth’s surface.
  • Cultigen : The species which would become extinct without human help.
  • Humification : Process of humus formation.
  • Humus : Well decomposed stable part of organic matter in the soil. It makes clay soils more airy and increases water holding capacity of sandy soils. It is formed by accumulation and decomposition of dead and decaying animals and partially decayed plants and microorganism.
  • Inexhaustible resources : These resources cannot be exhausted by any source. Air, sand, clay are the examples.
  • Inquilines : Animals which share their place of living are called inquilines.
  • Interstices : Fine spaces between the particles of soil are called interstices.
  • Ionosphere : Part of atmosphere which contains large number of ions and free electrons.
  • Land resource : Land is major constituent of lithosphere which is a fundamental component of life supporting system. It forms about 1/5th of the earth’s surface covering 13393 millions hectare.
  • Mineral resources : Some mineral elements are essential for the formation and functioning of living body of all organisms, including man. Besides man today uses a wide variety of minerals, some in large quantity to sustain his industry based civilization.
  • Moosphere : Environment dominated by man is called moosphere.
  • Non-renewable resources : Substances that lack ability for recycling or with very long recycling time, e.g., fossil fuels (Coal and Petroleum) etc. and minerals.
  • Rain : Water falling in drops from the clouds-drizzle, shower or down pour.
  • Red soil : Yellowish brown soil, it is rich in iron minerals, especially limonite and hematite.
  • Renewable resources : These resources are naturally replenished after their controlled consumption. They are water, wood, natural pastures etc.
  • Sandy soil : Soil having 70 to 80% clay and rest slit.
  • Soil : A thin layer of the earth’s crust; unconsolidated mixture of mineral particles of different sizes derived from weathering of rocks and humus consisting of organic matter; about 4/5th of land area is covered by soil, the relative proportion of clay, silt and sand determines the texture and type of soil.
  • Soil erosion : Wearing away of top layers of soil by wind, water of floods, denuding action of weathering.
  • Water resources : Major constituent of hydrosphere, covers four-fifth of the earth surface. Total amount of water in hydrosphere is 1.4 billion cubic kilometer – 97% of this in ocean (unsuitable for human use) only 3% is available as fresh water of which 72.2% is stored in snow cap and glaciers, 22.2% in ground water and soil moisture and  36% is distributed in lakes, streams, rivers etc.