KINGDOM MONERA
  •  Aerobe : It is an organism which can live and grow in presence of oxygen.
  • Anaerobe : It refers to those organisms which can live and grow in the absence of oxygen.
  • Antibiotic : A chemical substance produced by microorganism and synthetically that has capacity in dilute solution to inhabit the growth of, bacteria and other microorganisms.
  • Antitoxin : An antibody produced by the body in response a bacterial toxin that will combine with and neutralize the toxin.
  • Archaebactria : These are ancient group of bacteria having unique cell wall made up of polysaccharides and proteins.
  • Bacteriochlorophyll : Is a type of chlorophyll unique to photosynthetic bacteria.
  • Chromatophores : Photosynthetic pigments are present which help in photosynthesis (light reaction).
  • Conjugation: It is a type of sexual reproduction. It is observed in some bacteria.
  • Cultural medium : It consists of a mixture of nutrients which may be used in liquid form or solidified with the help of agar.
  • Cyanobacteria : Blue green algae that live in marine or fresh water, propogate mainly by asexual reproduction; some are filamentous with no well difined nucleus or chromatophores, some fix  atmospheric nitrogen and contribute richly to fertility of soil and water bodies.
  • Endospore : It is a resulting stage produced by few bacteria under unfavourable condition.
  • Eubacteria : Characteristic cell-wall is composed of mucein. The cell contains a circular, coiled chromosome and ribosomes but no membrane bound organelles. Flagella are locomotory in function and reproduction is by binary fission. Bacteria may be photoauto-trophic, chemoautotrophic or teherotrophic. These may be aerobic, anaerobic or facultative.
  • Facultative aerobe : Organism that can live with or without oxygen.
  • Facultative Aerobes : Are those bacteria that generally live under aerobic conditions but they can easily survive under anaerobic conditions as wll.
  • Facultative anaerobes : Are those bacteria that live generally under anaerobic conditions but they can easily survive under aerobic conditioaes as well.
  • Gramopositive : The bacteria decolorizing and staining with counter stain when treated with gram stain.
  • Halophiles : These are also a type of archae bacteria. They live in strong brim solution. Though they can utilize energy of sunlight to run their metabolic activity yet they cannot convert CO2 to sugars.
  • Mathanogens : A kind of bacteria. They are strict anaerobs which produce methane (CH4), from carbon dioxide (CO2) or formic acid (HCOOH). They are responsible for producing methane in biogas fermenters.
  • Mesosomes : These are membranous circular bodies. Mesosomes are the organelles which resemble golgi apparatus in eukaryotes.
  • Monera : (Prokaryotic) is further divided into two major groups or classes. Eubacteria (true bacteria) that includes cyanobacteria (blue green algae) and Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria).
  • Mycoplasma : They are organisms lacking a cell wall. They are prokaryotic cell.
  • Oblique aerobe : Organism which requires oxygen for the life.
  • Phycobillins : A group of accessory photosynthetic pigments found in blue green algae.
  • Plasmid : Any extra chromosomal genetic element found among bacteria.
  • Sex pili : The small fine protoplasmic threads which occur in certain forms of bacteria having episomes or sex plasmids are known as sex pili. They aid in attaching the donor cell with the recipient cell during conjugation.
  • Thermoacidophiles : Are group of bacteria found in hot sulphur springs. At above 80?in the absence of oxygen, they oxidize sulphur (S) to sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
  • Toxin : Any of the poisonous substances produced by living organism.
  • Transduction : It refers to the transfer of a part of DNA of the bacterium to another bacteriophage.
  • Transduction : The transfer of part of DNA of bacterium by another bacteriophage.