GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS

Getting to Know Plants


                                                                                POINTS TO REMEMBER

1. Flowering plants : Plants which bear flowers are called flowering plants. Their body is divided into root, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits.

2.  Herbs, shrubs and trees :
Plants are usually grouped into herbs, shrubs and trees on the basis of their heights, stems and branches :
  • Herbs :Plants with green and tender stems are called Herbs. They are usually short and sometimes do not have branches.
  • Shrubs :Some plants have branches arising from the base of the stem. The stem is hard but not very thick. They are called shrubs.
  • Trees :Some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stem. They have branches arising from upper part of the stem. They are called trees.
 
3. Creepers and climbers : The stems of some plants are very thin and weak. They either lie on the ground or need support to stand up. They are called creepers and climbers respectively.
 
4. Stem
  • It bears leaves, buds, flowers, fruits etc.
  • The stem conducts water from the roots to the leaves and to the other plants and food from leaves to the roots.
  • Potato, yams, ginger, onion etc. though present in the soil, are actually stems and store food within them.
 

5. Leaf
  • Leaves have variety of shapes, sizes and other structures.
  • Venation : The pattern of veins on the leaves is called venation.
  • Veins :Thread like structures in the leaves forming a network.
  • Midrib :It is the thick vein in the middle of the leaf.
  • Types of venation :Two types of venation are found :
                       Reticulate : If the venation is net like structure on both sides of midrib, it is called reticulate. For example, Peepal.
                       Parallel :In the leaves of grasses the veins are parallel to one another. Such a venation is called parallel.
  • Node : Places where leaves and branches are joined to stem are called nodes.
  • Internodes : The part of stem between two nodes is called internode.
  • Function of leaves
                        Transpiration : It is the process of evaporation of water from the surface of leaves.
                        Photosynthesis :Green leaves make food from the sunlight, air and water by a process called Photosynthesis.
6. Roots
  • Roots are mostly the underground part of the plant.
  • They absorb water and mineral from the soil.
  • They hold the soil firmly to keep the plant upright.
  • Some roots store food and become plump.
  • Roots are of two types : fibrous root and tap root.
  •  Fibrous roots : In the plants like grass the branches of the root come out from the base of the stem. Such roots are known as fibrous roots.
  • Tap roots :In some plants the branches of the root arise from a thick structure under the ground which is called the main root. Such roots are called tap root.
  • Root hairs :The fine hair like structures on the branches of root are root hairs.
  • Lateral roots :The smaller roots on tap root is called lateral roots.
  • Plants having leaves with reticulate venation have tap root and plants having leaves with parallel venation have fibrous root.
7. Flower
  • It is usually most attractive part of a plant.
  • Sepals, petals, stamens and pistils are the main parts of the flower.
  • Parts of a flower are usually present in rings or whorls.
  • Pedicel : The stalk that joins a flower to the plant is called the pedicel.
  • Sepals : It is the outermost whorl of the flower. Often they are small, green leaf like structures. They protect the inner parts of a flower while it is still a bud.
  • Petals :Inside the sepals there is the whorl of petals. Different flowers have petals of different colours. Some flowers have sweet smelling petals. With its colour and smell, the petals attract not only human beings but also insects and birds.
  • Stamens : These are 4-6 in number and are male part of a flower. Each stamen is made up of two parts – filament and anther. Anther contains pollen grains.
  • Pistil :It is the innermost part of a flower. Ovary can be divided into three parts : (a) Stigma, (b) Style and (c) Ovary.
                 Ovary may further be divided into locules. Locules contain ovules.
 

8. Conduct : The water and minerals go to leaves and other parts of plant attached to the stem.

9. Petiole :
The part of a leaf by which it is attached to the stem is called petiole.


10. Ovules :
The small bead like structures inside the ovary are called Ovules.

 

Q.1. Correct the following statements and rewrite them in your notebook.
  1. Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
  2. Leaves hold the plant upright.
  3. Roots conduct water to the leaves.
  4. The number of petals and sepals in a flower is always equal.
  5. If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are also joined together.
  6. If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is joined to the petal.
Ans. (a) Root absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
(b) Roots hold the plant upright.
(c) Stem conducts water to the leaves.
(d) The number of petals and sepals in a flower is usually the same.
(e) If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are not necessarily joined together.
(f) If the petals of a flower are joined then the pistil is not necessarily joined to the petals.


Q.2 . Can you find a plant in your house or in your neighborhood, which has a long but a weak stem? Write its name. In which category would you classify it?

Ans.
Yes, Money plant. It is a herb.

Q.3. What is the function of a stem in a plant?


Ans.
A stem in a plant performs following functions :
  1. It bears leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, etc.
  2. It conducts water from roots to the leaves and other parts and food from leaves to the roots.
  3. In some plants it is also modified to store food.
  4. It upholds the plant upright.
Q.4. Which of the following leaves have reticulate venation?
        Wheat, tulsi, maize, grass, coriander (dhania), China rose.
Ans. Tulsi, china rose, dhania.

Q. 5.  If a plant has fibrous root, what type of venation do its leaves likely to have?


Ans.
Parallel venation.

Q.6. If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, what kind of roots will it have?


Ans.
Tap root.

Q.7. Is it possible for you to find out whether a plant has taproot or fibrous roots by looking at the impression of its leaf on a sheet of paper?


Ans.
We cannot exactly recognize a leaf without seeing it. However we can be able to make some idea about the leaf by touching and smelling.

Q.8. Write the names of the parts of a flower.


Ans.
Starting from outside the names of various parts of a flower are :


(i) Sepals (Calyx)                            (ii) Petals (Corolla)
      (iii) Stamens (Androecium)              (iv) Pistil (Gynoecium)

Q. 9. Which of the following plants have you seen? Of those that you have seen, which one have flowers?


Grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulsi, papal, shisham, banyan, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut.

Ans.

S.No.
 
Name of the
Plant
Whether
Seen
Whether have Flowers
Yes
 
No
1.
 
GrassYes X
2.
 
MaizeYesX 
3.
 
WheatYes X
4.
 
ChilliYesX 
5.
 
TomatoYesX 
6.
 
TulsiYesX 
7.
 
PeepalYes X
8.
 
ShishamYesX 
9.
 
BanyanYes X
10.
 
MangoYesX 
11.
 
JamunYesX 
12.
 
GuavaYesX 
13.
 
PomegranateYesX 
14.
 
PapayaYesX 
15.
 
BananaYesX 
16.
 
LemonYesX 
17.
 
SugarcaneYes X
18.
 
PotatoYes X
19.
 
GroundnutYes X
 
Q.10. Name the part of the plant which produces its food. Name this process.

Ans.
Leaves produce food for the plant. This process is known as photosynthesis.

Q.11. In which part of a flower, you are likely to find the ovary?


Ans.
Pistil. Ovary is the lowermost part of pistil.

Q.13. Name two flowers, each with joined and separated sepals.


Ans.
Flowers with joined sepals : (i) Datura (ii) Loki
         Flowers with separate sepals : (i) Gurhal (ii) Mustard.
 

                                                                             ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1. In what sequence does  a plant bear?
        Seed, Flower, Fruit.
Ans. A plant bears first flowers, then fruit and in the last seeds.

Q.2. Write the names or reproductive parts of a flower:


Ans.
The reproductive parts of a flower are :
  1. Stemens
  2. Pistil
Q.3. Why are leaves generally green?

Ans.
The green colour of leaves is because of the presence of chlorophyll.

Q.4. From the members of the various groups given below, find the odd one out.

        (a) Coriander (dhania), mint (pudina), jamun, grass.
        (b) rose, mehndi, guava, morepankh.

Ans.
(a) Jamun (Jamun is a tree while others are herbs).
         (b) Guava (Guava is a tree while others are shrubs).

Q.5. Draw a labeled diagram of the external structure of a leaf.


Ans.

 
Q.6. Write the functions of sepals and petals.

Ans. Functions of Sepals :
Sepals protect the inner parts of flower when it is a bud.
         Functions of Petals : Petals attract the insects which are the agencies of pollination by colour and smell.


Q.7. Name the male part of a flower. Draw its labeled diagram.


Ans.
Male part of a flower is known as stamen. It has two parts – filament and anther. Anther contains pollen grains.
 
Q.8. Draw a diagram of L.S. and T.S. of ovary to show ovules and locules.

Ans.

 

Q.9. Look carefully at any one plant around you, draw a neat diagram of the plant and label it.
Ans.
 

Q.10. What is a fruit? How does it differ  from a seed?

Ans. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower swells up and forms the fruits, like mango, orange etc.
Embryo surrounded by a hard wall is called the seed. The seed contains a store of food, usually starch.

Q.11. Do you agree that stem is like a two way street?


Ans.
Yes. Stem carries the water absorbed by the roots to the leaves and also the food prepared by the leaves to the roots. Thus it acts like a two way street as shown in the following figure :
 
Q.12. What are the basic requirements of plants to survive ?
 
Ans. Sun light, CO2, Nutrients

Q.13. What are creepers and climbers? Give some examples.


Ans.
In some plants like grape vines, money plant, bean stalk, gourd plants etc., the stem is so weak that it cannot hold it straight. It either stand up with some support or they just spread on the ground. In first condition the plants are called climbers and in second condition they are called creepers or runners.

Q.14. How will you cut an ovary in proper way? Show giving sketch.


Ans.

 
Q.15. Do all flowers have four separate whorls? Does any flower have more than four whorls? If so write its name.

Ans.
No. Some flowers have more whorls than others. Sometimes some of these whorls may even be absent. For example:
  1. In Gudhal an additional whorl of epicalyx is found.
  2. In unisexual flowers either stamen or pistil is absent.
Q.16. Do all flowers have the same parts and are they arranged in the same way?

Ans.
Different flowers are different. The number of petals and sepals are found different in different flowers. Some of the flowers have stamens and some flowers have only pistil, others have both. Sepals may be connected with petals in some cases but in other cases these may be separated. Thus the properties of all flowers are different.

Q.17. If you wear green coloured clothes (so as to look like green plants) and stand in the sun. Can you be called an autotroph? If yes why? If not, why?


Ans.
Wearing green coloured clothes we can look like green plants. But we cannot be called autotroph. The green colour of leaves is due to the presence of chlorophyll. Presence of chlorophyll makes plants capable to synthesize their food. So, plants are called autotrophs. Green coloured clothes do not provide this facility to us. So we cannot be as plants.

Q.18. Select leaves showing parallel venation and those showing reticulate venation from the list below and write them in the table given below:


Ans.

Reticulate VenationParallel Venation
 
Peepal
Mint
Tulsi
Rose
Mustard
Neem
Dhania(coriander)
Methi
Mango
 
Grass
Sugarcane
Maize
Wheat
Rice
 
Q.19. With the help of diagrams tabulate the differences between a shrub and a tree, based on the properties of the stem.
Ans.
ShrubTree
 
  1. More branches arise from the base of stem.
  2. The stem is hard and thin.
 
 
 
 
 
  1. The branches arise from the stem.
  2. The stem is hard, fat and woody.
 
Q.20. Look carefully on the stems arising from various plants growing around you. Based on your observation fill the table given below:
Table 7.1
S.No.Description of the StemName of the Plant
 
1.
 
2.
 
3.
 
4.
 
5.
 
Green and tender stem
 
Hard, woody, thick brown stem
 
Hard, woody, thin stem
 
Branches arise from the base of the stem
 
Branches arise from the upper part of the stem
 
 
Ans.
S.No.Description of the StemName of the Plant
 
1.
 
2.
 
3.
 
4.
 
5.
 
Green and tender stem
 
Hard, woody, thick brown stem
 
Hard, woody, thin stem
 
Branches arise from the base of the stem
 
Branches arise from the upper part of the stem
Pea
 
Mango
 
Lady finger
 
Rose
 
Rubber plant
 
Q.21. What is the major source of Plant Nutrients
 
Ans.  Soil

Q.22. What are the main functions of roots?

Ans.
Main functions of roots are :
  1. Roots absorb water and minerals from soil for the other parts of the plants.
  2. Roots hold the plant firmly with the soil.
  3. Some roots transform to store food e.g. raddish.
  4. Roots of leguminous plants contain symbiotic bacteria which add the fertility of soil by fixing nitrogen into nitrates.
Q.23. Explain the difference between tap roots and fibrous roots with the help of diagrams.

Ans.

Tap RootFibrous Root
  1. There is only one main and long root from which small roots grow.
  2.  These roots go into the soil to more depth.
  3.  These roots cannot be separated from soil easily.
  4.  Found in the plants like weeds having reticulate venation in leaves.
 
 





  1. There is no main root. Many roots are grown together from the base of stem in the form of bundi.
  2. These do not go down much dep.
  3.  These are easily separated from the soil.
  4.  Found in the plants like grasses having parallel venation in leaves.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Q.24. Identify the structure seen in Figure 7.28 and write three sentences about it.
 
Ans. This is a fibrous root. It has following features:
  1. Roots are grown from the base of the stem.
  2. These roots do not reach upto more depth in the soil.
  3. These roots are found in the plants having parallel venation in leaves e.g. grasses.
                                                                                    OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with that in Column B :
Column A
 
Column B
1. Creeper
 
2. Herb
 
3. Shrub
 
4. Tree
 
5. Root
 
6. Stem
 
7. Leaf
 
8. Flower
 
(i) Absorption of mineral and water.
 
(ii) Manufacture food.
 
(iii) Transport food, water and mineral.
 
(iv) Reproduction.
 
(v) Need support to stand up.
 
(vi) Hard and thick stem.
 
(vii) Green and tender stem.
 
(viii) Hard but thin stem.
 
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
  1. Water travels up the stem through ………. inside the stem.
  2. Thick vein in the centre of leaf is called ………. .
  3. Design made by ……….. in a leaf is called venation.
  4. Leaves Bicchu (Meltles) give you ……….. on touching.
  5. Leaves have ……….. shapes, sizes, edges, tips, etc.
  6. Water comes out of leaves in the form of vapour by a process called ……… .
  7. Green leaves make food from ………., air and water by a process called photosynthesis.
  8. The fine hair like structures on the lateral roots are ……….. .
  9. Potatoes and jams are ……….. .
  10. Small fine particles present in the anther are called …………. .
  11. …………... is the lower most part of a pistil.
  12. After maturation ovary is converted into a ……….. .
Q.3. State whether the statements given below are True or False :
  1. Hers are usually short and sometimes do not have branches.
  2. In shrubs, branches arise from the base of the stem.
  3. In trees, branches arise from the upper part of stem.
  4. Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
  5. Roots hold the plant firmly in the soil.
  6. Leaves manufacture the food in presence of sunlight by the process of transpiration.
  7. Plants having leaves with reticulate venation have fibrous roots.
  8. All plants have colourful flowers.
  9. The parts of a flower are usually present in whorls.
  10. Pistil is female reproductive part of a flower.
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following questions :

(i) Which is an example of a shrub?

(a)Spinach                                (b)Mango tree
(c)Tomato plant                          (d)Lemon

(ii) Which of the following type of plants has thick, hard and woody stem?

(a)Tree                                           (b)Shrub
(c)Herb                                          (d)All of these

(iii) Which is not a part of a leaf?

(a)Petiole                                      (b)Lamina
(c)Veins                                         (d)Nodes

(iv) Parallel venation is not found in

(a)sugarcane                                (b)peepal
(c)maize                                        (d)wheat

(v) Which one of the following is a function of leaves?

(a)Photosynthesis                       (b)Transpiration
(c)Both (a) and (b)                       (d)Support fruits

(vi) Leaf venation and type of root is correctly paired in

(a)parallel venation, fibrous roots
(b)parallel venation, tap root
(c)no relation exists in leaf venation and type of roots
(d)reticulate venation, fibrous roots

(vii) Male reproductive part of flower is

(a)sepals                                       (b)petals
(c)stamens                                    (d)pistil

(viii) Which is a correct set of parts of a pistil?

(a)Ovary, style and filament      (b)Ovary, style and stigma
(c)Ovary, anther and filament   (d)Filament and anther

(ix ) Which of the following has fibrous root?

(a)Peas                                          (b)Wheat
(c)Radish                                      (d)Neem

(x) The process of loss of water by a plant through leaves is called

(a)evaporation                              (b)condensation
(c)photosynthesis                        (d)transpiration
 

ANSWERS TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with that in Column B :

Column A
 
Column B
1. Creeper
 
2. Herb
 
3. Shrub
 
4. Tree
 
5. Root
 
6. Stem
 
7. Leaf
 
8. Flower
 
 
(v) Need support to stand up
 
(vii) Green and tender stem
 
(viii) Hard but thin stem.
 
(vi) Hard and thick stem
 
(i) Absorption of mineral and water.
 
  (iii) Transport food, water and mineral
 
   (ii) Manufacture food.
 
  (iv) Reproduction
 
 
 
Q.2. Fill in the blanks :
        (i) narrow tubes                 (ii) mid rib                           (iii) veins
        (iv) rashes and itching       (v) different                        (vi) transpiration
        (vii) sunlight                       (viii) root hair                     (ix) stems
        (x) pollen grains                (xi) Ovary                           (xii) fruit.
Q.3. True/False :
        (i) True                (ii) True             (iii) True           (iv) False            (v) True
        (vi) False             (vii) False         (viii) False         (ix) True             (x) True.
Q.4. Choose the correct option :
  (i)       (d) Spinach and tomato herbs while mango is a tree. So lemon is a shrub.
  (ii)      (a) Herb has a soft stem while shrubs have thin stem.
  (iii)     (d) Nodes are found on stems.
  (iv)     (b) In peepal reticulate venation.
  (v)      (c) Leaves performs both functions.
  (vi)    (a) Plants with parallel leaf venation have fibrous roots while plants with reticulate leaf venation have tap roots.
  (vii)     (c) Stamen is male reproductive part.
  (viii)    (b) Filament and anther are the parts of stamen.
  (ix)      (b) Wheat root spread out in the soil.
  (x)       (d) The process of losing water by leaves is called transpiration.