|Ideal Gas law|
PV = nRT
n = number of moles
R = universal gas constant = 8.3145 J/mol K
|Combined Gas law|
P1V1 = P2V2
|Gay-Lussac law||Diffusion: Rate at which two gases mix|
Graham's law of diffusion
The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of their density or the molar mass of the gas.
|Effusion: Rate at which a gas escapes thru pin hole|
Graham's law of effusion
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of either the density or the molar mass of the gas.
|Solution: Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.|
Solute is a substance that is dissolved in the solution.
Solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute. Solvent is present in greater amount.
|Concentration is the ratio of solute and solvent.|
Concentration can be measured using molarity, molality and mole fraction.
|Molarity (M) = ||moles of solute |
|liters of solution |
|Molality (m) = ||moles of solute |
|kg of solution ||Unit of Molarity (M) : mol/L : moles per litre|
Unit of Molality (M) : mol/kg : moles per kg
fraction: Mole fraction of a component in solution is the number of
moles of that component divided by the total number of moles of all
components in the solution.|
|Mole-fraction (Xa)= ||molesa |
|molesa + molesb .... ||Dilution: Siluting a solution means adding more solvent in solution without the addition of more solute. |
MiVi = MfVf
Mi: Molarity of solution before diluting.
Vi: Volume of solution before diluting.
Mf: Molarity of solution after diluting.
Vf: Volume of solution after diluting.
Mole is the amount of substance that contains same number of particles
as there are atoms in Carbon-12. One mole of substance is Avogadro's
number (i.e. 6.023 x 1023). ||One mole of gas has volume of 22.4 liter at STP. |
|Relation between moles and grams|
1 mole = molecular weight of substance in grams.
Enthalpy: It is the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or
molecule (i.e from low state to n=8). It is always endothermic (i.e.
ORIonization energy: energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
|pH = pKa + log10 ||[A-] |
[A-]: Concentration of conjugate base
[HA]: concentration of the acid
|pH = pKa + log10 ||[Conjugate Base] |