FIBRE TO FABRIC
 
WOOL

         1.  Wool comesfrom the fleece (hair) of sheep, goat, yak etc.
         2.  Skin of the sheep has two types of fibres (i) the coarse beard hair, and (ii) the fine soft under hair close to skin.
         3.  The fine hair provide the fibres for making wool.
         4.  Selective breeding: The process of breeding among the parents with desirable characters to get in their offspring is termed as selective breeding. Example, soft under hair in sheep. 
         5.  Sheep are reared in many parts of our country for wool. Some breeds of sheep are listed below:
 
Table 3.1.  Some Indian breeds of sheep
 
S.No        Name of breed       Quality of wool           State where found
 
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
 
 Lohi
 Rampur bushair
 Nali
 Bakharwal
 Marwari
 Patanwadi
 
Good quality wool
Brown fleece
Carpet wool
For woolen shawls
Coarse wool
For hosiery
 
Rajasthan, Punjab
Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh
Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab
Jammu and Kashmir
Gujarat
Gujarat
 
        6.  Processing of fibres into wool involves following steps:
              (a)  Shearing: The fleece of the sheep along with a thin layer of skin isremoved from it’s body. This process is called shearing.
               (b)  Scouring: The sheared skin with hair is thoroughly washed in tanks to remove grease, dust and dirt. This is called scouring.
              (c)  Sorting: The hairy skin is sent to a factory where hair of different textures are                separated.
              (d)  The small fluffy fibres, called burrs are picked out from the hair.
              (e)   Fibres are dyed in various colours.
              (f)  Fibres are straightened, combed and rolled into yarn. The longer fibres are made into wool for sweaters and the shanter fibres are spun and woven into woollen cloth.
      






SILK 
      
1.  The silk yarn (thread) is obtained from the cocoon of the silk moth (Scientifically called as Bombyx mori).
 2.  The most common silk moth is themulberry silk moth.
 3.  Sericulture. The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is calledsericulture.
 4.  Life History of Silk Moth:

      Eggs              Caterpillars or silkworms (larvae)           Pupa           Silk moth



 
                                             Fig. 3.6. (a to f) life history of silk moth
 
 
 5.  Silkworm swings it’s head from side to side and secretes fibre made of a protein. fibre hardens on exposure to air and becomes silk fibre.
 Soon the silkworm completely covers itself by silk fibres. This covering is known as cocoon.

6.
 For obtaining silk, months are reared and their cocoons are collected to get silk thread.

7.  Reeling of silk:
The process of taking out threads from the cocoon for use as silk is called reeling the silk.

8. 
Tassar, mooga, kosa etc. are different varieties of silk.

9.
  Silk fibres obtained by reeling the spun into silk threads, which are woven into silk
     cloth by the weavers.
 
 
NCERT TEXTBOOK EXERCISES
 
Q. 1.  You must be familiar with the following nursery rhymes:
             (i)  ‘Baa baa black sheep, have you any wool’.
            (ii)   ‘Mary had a little lamb, whose fleece was white as snow’.
 
         Answer the following:

            (a)  Which parts of the black sheep have wool?
            (b)  What is meant by the white fleece of the lamb?

Ans.
    (a)  The hairy skin---called as fleece, have wool in black sheep.
            (b)  White fleece means the hairy skin which is white in colour.
 
Q. 2.  The silkworm is (a) a caterpillar, (b) a larva. Choose the correct option.
             (i) (a)                                                    (ii) (b)
            (iii) both (a) and (b)                              (iv) neither (a) nor (b)
 
Ans.    (iii) both (a) and (b)
 
Q. 3.  Which of the following does not yield wool?
          (i)    Yak                                                     (ii) Camel
          (iii) Goat                                                    (iv) Woolly dog
 
Ans.  (iv) Woolly dog.
 
Q. 4.  What is meant by the following terms?
           (i)  Rearing                                                (ii) Shearing
         (iii)  Sericulture  
                               
Ans. 

(i)  Rearing. Rearing of animals means “taking care of economically useful animals by managing their breeding, feeding, medical care etc. for obtaining one or more of their product useful for human being” e.g., apiculture, sericulture.

(ii)Shearing. The process of removing the fleece of the sheep along with a thin layer of skin is called shearing.

(iii)Sericulture. The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called sericulture.
 
Q. 5.  Given below is a sequence of step in the processing of wool. Which are the missing steps? Add them.
           Shearing……….,.sorting,  ………….,  ………….., …………. .
 
Ans.   Shearing,scouring, sorting,picking out of burrs, colouring, rolling.
 
Q.6.   Make sketches of the two stages in the life history of the silk moth which are directly related to the production of silk.
Ans.  Do yourself.
 
Q. 7.  Out of the following which are the two terms related to silk production? Sericulture,  floriculture, moriculture, apiculture and silviculture.
           Hints: (i) Silk production involves cultivation of mulberry leaves and rearing silkworms.
            (ii) Scientific name of mulberry is Morus alba.
Ans:  Sericulture, Moriculture.
 
Q. 8.  Match the words of Column I with those given in Column II
                     Column I                                                Column II
                1.  Scouring                                         (a) Yields silk fibres
                2.  Mulberry leaves                             (b) Wool yielding animal
                3.  Yak                                                 (c) Food of silk worm
                4.  Cocoon                                           (d) Reeling
                                                                             (e) Cleaning sheared skin     
 
Ans.              Column I                                                Column II
                1.  Scouring                                           (e) Cleaning sheared skin        
                2.  Mulberry leaves                               (c) Food of silk worm 
                3.  Yak                                                   (b) Wool yielding animal
                4.  Cocoon                                             (a) Yields silk fibres.
Q. 9.  Given below is a crossword puzzle based on this lesson. Use hints to fill in the blanks spaces with letters that completed the words.
          Down                                                    Across
          (D) 1: Thorough washing                  (A) 1: Keeps warm
                 2: Animal fibre                                  2: Its leaves are eaten by silkworms
                 3: Long thread like structure             3: Hatches from egg of moth



Ans.




 
                      ADDITIONAL IMPORTANANT QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Name any two animal fibres.


 Ans.
Wool and silk.
 
Q. 2. Name some animals which yield wool.

Ans.
Sheep, goat, yak, camel, alpaca and llama.
 
Q. 3. From which animal, wool for Pashmina shawls is obtained?

Ans.
Kashmiri goats.
 
Q. 4. What are burrs?

Ans. 
Burrs are the small fluffy fibres in wool.
 
Q. 5. From which animal, the silk is obtained?

Ans.
Silk moth.
 
Q. 6. What is sericulture?

Ans.
The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called sericulture.
 
Q. 7.  In its life history in which stage the silk moth spin the silk the silk fibre?

Ans. 
Caterpillar.
 
Q. 8. What is cocoon?

 Ans.
The covering of silk fibres inside which the caterpillar of silk moth covers itself is called cocoon.
 
Q. 9. Name the most common silk moth.

 Ans.
Mulbery silk moth.
 
Q. 10. Which is the scientific name of mulberry tree?

Ans. 
Morus alba.
 
Q. 11. What is the food of silkworm?

Ans. 
Mulberry leaves.
 
Q. 12. From which body part of sheep, wool is obtained?

Ans. 
Fleece (hair).
 
Q. 13. In which region angora goats are found?

Ans. 
Tibet and Ladakh.
 
Q. 14. What is the technical term for removing hair from the body of sheep?

Ans. 
Shearing.
 
Q. 15. To which class of organic substances does silk fibre belong?

Ans. 
Protein.
 
Q. 16. Wool comes from sheep, goat, yak and some other animals. Why these animals have a thick coat of hair?

Ans. 
Hair trap a lot of air. Air is a poor conductor of heat. So hair keeps these animals warm. This is an adaptive feature of those animals living in cold regions.
 
Q. 17. What is ‘selective breeding?

Ans. 
The process of selecting parents for obtaining desired characters in their offsprings, such as soft under hair in sheep, is termed ‘selective breeding’.
 
Q. 18. How many types of fibres are found in sheep?

Ans.  
The hairy skin of sheep has two types of fibres that form its fleece: (i) the coarse beard hair, and (ii) the fine soft under hair close to the skin. The fine hair provide the fibres for making wool.
 
Q. 19. Write a short note on the food habit of sheep.

Ans. 
Sheep are herbivorous and prefer grass and leaves. They take their food mainly by grazing. Apart from grazing sheep rearers also feed them on a mixture of pulses, corn, jowar, oil cakes and minerals. In winter, sheep are kept indoors and fed on leaves, grain and dry fodder.
 
 
 
Q. 20. Name some important breeds of sheep found in different regions of India.

Ans.   Name of breed                             State where found

          1. Lohi                                           Rajasthan, Punjab
          2. Rampur bushair                         Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh
          3. Nali                                            Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab
          4. Bakharwal                                  Jammu and Kashmir
          5. Marwari                                     Gujarat
          6. Patanwadi                                  Gujarat
 
Q. 21. Explain how the caterpillar makes silk thread.

Ans. 
Caterpillars grow in size and when it is ready to enter the next stage of its life called pupa, it first weaves a net to hold itself. Then it swings its head from side to side and secretes fibre made of a protein which hardens on exposure to air and becomes silk fibre. Soon the caterpillar completely covers itself by silk fibres. This covering is known as cocoon.
 
Q. 22. How is silk thread obtained from cocoon?

Ans. 
A pile of cocoons is used for obtaining silk fibres. The cocoons are kept under the sun, boiled or exposed to steam. The silk fibres separate out. The process of taking out threads from the cocoon for use as silk is called reeling the silk.
 
 
Q. 23. How silk yarn of different textures is prepared?

Ans. 
The silk yarn is obtained from cocoon of the silk moth. There is a variety of silk moths which look very different from one another and the silk yarn they yield is different in texture (coarse, smooth, shiny etc.). Thus tassar silk, mooga silk, kosa silk etc. are obtained from cocoons spun by different types of moths. 
 
Q. 24. Why is silk obtained by mulberry silk moth most popular?

Ans.
The most common silk moth is the mulberry silk moth. The silk fibre obtained from the cocoon of this moth is soft, lusturous and elastic and can be dyed in beautiful colours. This is because it is most popular.
 
Q. 25. Write a short note on ‘sorter’s disease’.

Ans.   
Many people involved in the sorter’s job in wool industry. Some times they get infected by a bacterium anthrax. This causes a fatal blood disease called sorter’s disease. Such risks faced by workers in any occupation are known as occupational hazards.
 
Q. 26. Describe various sources of wool. What kind of animals in different regions are reared for obtaining wool?

Ans. 
Though wool commonly available in the market is sheep wool, the fleece of sheep is not the only source of wool. For example,
         (i) Yak wool is common in Tibet and Ladakh.
        (ii) Angora wool is obtained from angora goats, found in hilly regions such as Jammu and Kashmir.
        (iii) The under fur of Kashmiri goats is soft. It is woven into fine shawls called Pashmina shawls.
       


                             Fig. 3.7. Yak                                                                                            Fig. 3.8. Angora goat
 
  
     (iv) The fur on the body of camels is also used as wool.

        (v) Llama and Alpaca found in south America also yield wool.


                Fig. 3.9. Goat                                                                                                                   Fig. 3.10 Camel



                 Fig. 3.11. Llama                                                                                                  Fig. 3.12. Alpaca


Q. 27. Explain various steps involved in the process of making wool.

Ans.
The wool which is used for knitting sweaters, weaving shawls etc. is the final product of a ling process which completes in following steps:
          Step I---Shearing. The fleece of the sheep along with a thin layer of skin is removed from its body. Machines similar to those used by barbers are used to shave off hair. Usually hair are removed during the hot weather.
         Step II---Scouring, The sheared skin with hair is thoroughly washed in tanks to remove grease, dust and dirt.
         Step III---Sorting. The hairy skin is sent to a factory where hair of different textures are separated or sorted.
         Step IV---The small fluffy fibres, called burrs are picked out from the hair. The fibres are scoured again & again and dried.
         Step V---Fibres can be dyed in various colours.
         Step VI---The fibres are straightened, combed and rolled into yarn. The long fibres are made into wool for sweaters and the shorter fibres are spun and woven into woollen clothes.
 
Q. 28. Explain briefly the life history of silk moth.

Ans.
The female moth lays eggs. Eggs hatch into larvae called caterpillar or silkworms. It grows in size and weaves a net to hold itself. Then it swings its head from side to side in the form of the figure of eight (8). During these movements of the head it secrets fibre and completely covers itself. This covering is known as cocoon. Thus caterpillar is converted into pupa. The further development of the moth continues inside the cocoon. The pupa then converts itself into adult moth.


Fig. 3.13. Life cycle of silk moth
 
Q. 29. How silkworms are reared? Explain in brief.
Ans.  After mating with male, the fertilized female silk moth lays hundreds of eggs. These are stored on cloth or paper strips. These are then sold to farmers. The farmers keep these eggs under hygienic and suitable conditions of temperature and humidity.

 
Fig. 3.14. Rearing silkworms

Eggs are warmed at certain temperature. The eggs hatch into larvae. These larvae eat up mulberry leaves day and night and increase in size rapidly. The worms are kept in bamboo trays with freshly chopped mulberry leaves. After 25-30 days, the caterpillars stop eating and move to tiny chambers of bamboo in the tray and spin cocoons.
 
 
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q. 1.  Match the items given in Column I with those given in Column II.


 
Column I
 
Column II
 
 (i)  Selective breeding
(ii)  Shearing
(iii) Scouring
(iv) Reeling
 (v) Sorting
 
(vi) Animal fibre
 
(a) Separating different textures
(b) Washing of hair removed from sheep
(c) Removing fleece from sheep
(d) Process of taking out threads from cocoon
(e) Selecting parents for obtaining special characters in their
      Offspring.   
 (f) Wool
 
Q. 2.  Fill in the blank space in the following statements:
    (i) A pile of ………… is used for obtaining silk fibres.
   (ii) In India mostly ………….. are reared for getting wool.
  (iii) Silk fibres are made of ………….. .
  (iv) Silkworms are the ……………. Of silk moth.
   (v) The hair of sheep are termed ……………. .
  (vi) Silk and ………….. are animal fibres.
 (vii) The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called ……….. .
(viii) ………….. is the food of silkworm.
 
 
Q. 3.  Choose the true and false statements from the following:
    (i) Wool and silk are the animal fibres.
   (ii) Silk is obtained from the fleece of sheep.
  (iii) Pashmina shawls woven from the wool obtained from the under fur of
         Kashmiri goats.
  (iv) Silk moths spin the silk fibres.
   (v) Silk fibre is chemically a protein.
  (vi) The most common silk moth is the mulberry silk moth.
 (vii) For reeling of silk, cocoon are boiled.
 (viii) Lohi is a breed of sheep.
 
Q. 4.  Choose the correct option in the following:
    (i) Which of the following is an animal fibre?
          (a) Jute                                        (b) Cotton 
          (c) Polyester                                (d) Silk
 
   (ii) Wool can be obtained from
          (a) Sheep                                       (b) Goat
          (c) Yak                                          (d) All of these
  
 (iii) Which of the following is not a breed of sheep?
           (a) Murrah                                  (b) Marwari
           (c) Lohi                                       (d) Nali
 
  (iv) Which is the proper sequence in processing fibre into wool?
           (a) Shearing  
?      sorting  ?              rolling     ?  scouring
           (b) Shearing  
?       scouring ?        sorting  ?           rolling
           (c) Sorting    
?         scouring  ?       rolling ?         shearing
           (d) Scouring    
?        shearing     ?          sorting   ?         rolling
 
  (v) Which is not related to silk industry?
           (a) Sericulture                                (b) Moriculture
           (c) Apiculture                                (d) Reeling
 
  (vi) What is the scientific name of mulberry tree?
           (a) Magnifera indica                      (b) Morus alba
           (c) Desmodium girence                 (d) None of these 
 
  (vii) Silk is obtained from
            (a) Cocoon                                     (b) Pupa
            (c) Egg                                           (d) Moth
 
 (viii) Which one is not a part of the process of getting wool?
             (a) Shearing                                   (b) Scouring
             (c) Reeling                                     (d) Rolling
 
   (ix)  Which one is not a variety of silk?
              (a) Tassar                                      (b) Mooga
              (c) Ruby                                        (d) Kosa  
 
    (x)  Rearing of silk moth is known as
              (a) Sericulture                              (b) Apiculture
              (c) Horticulture                            (d) Floriculture
 
   (xi) Which of the following is obtained from plants?
              (a) Nylone                                     (b) PVC
              (c) Cotton                                      (d) Polyester
 
    (xii) Which of the following is not a plant fibre?
              (a) Bakalite                                   (b) Starch
              (c) Cellulose                                  (d) Cotton
 
    (xiii) Which is a breeds of sheep?
              (a) Lohi                                        (b) Caterpillar
              (c) Bombyx mori                         (d) Mooga
 
   (xiv)  Silk thread is extracted from the cocoons by a process called
            (a) reeling                                       (b) shearing
            (c) sorting                                       (d) sericulture
 
   (xv)  Which of the following is a synthetic fibre?
            (a) Nylon                                         (b) Cotton
            (c) Cellulose                                    (d) Starch
 
ANSWERS TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTION
Q.1 Match the items in column I with Column II:
Column IColumn II
  1. Selective breeding
  2. Shearing
  3. Scouring
  4. Reeling
  5. Sorting
  6. Animal Fiber
 
  1. Selecting parents for obtaining special characters in their offspring
  2. Removing fleece from sheep
  3. Washing of hair removed from sheep
  4. Process of taking out threads from cocoon
  5. Separating different textures
  6. Wool
 
 
Q.2. Fill in the blacks:
       (i) Cocoon                    (ii) Sheep           (iii) protein                (iv) caterpillar
      (v) fleece                       (vi) wool            (vii) Sericulture        (viii) Mulberry leaves
 
Q.3. True/False:
        (i) True                        (ii) False            (iii) True                   (iv) False
       (v) True                       (vi) True             (vii) True                 (vii) True.
Q.4. Choose the correct option:
        (i) (d)                       (ii) (d)                  (iii)  (a)                (iv) (b)
       (v) (c)                       (vi) (b)                 (vii) (a)                (vii) (c)
      (ix) (c)                       (x)  (a)                  (xi) (c)                 (xii) (a)
     (xii) (d)                    (xiv) (a)                  (xv) (a)