FIBER AND FABRICS

Fiber to Fabric


1. Fibers: All cloth materials are made up of long, narrow, thin structures called fibers. Fibers are obtained from natural as well as manmade sources.

2. Natural sources:
Cotton, jute, silk, wool etc. are obtained from natural sources plants or materials.


3. Man made sources:
Polyester, nylon, rayon etc. are manmade material used for making clothes.


4. Plant fibers:
All the plants have fibers in their body structure, e.g., cotton and mango have fiber on their seed, coconut on its fruit, jute in its stem and banana tree on its leaf.


5. Animal fibers:
Important animal fibers are wool (hair of sheep) and silk (from silk worm).


6. Cotton is the most important industrial crop.


7. India was the proud inventor of cotton clothing.


9. Cotton has been used in India since 1800 B.C.

9. Production: Cotton is grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh.

10 . Climate required:
Cotton plants need warm climate.


11. It is planted early in the spring.


12. Black soil is excellent for its cultivation.


13. Cotton ball:
Fruits of cotton plant are spherical shaped structures of the size of wall nut which are called cotton balls.

14.
On maturation cotton balls burst open, exposing the white fibers.

15. As the fibers dry in the sun they become fluffy.

16. Cotton fibers: Cotton fibers are hairs that grow on the surface of cotton seeds.

17. Ginning:
Seeds from the cotton are pulled out by steel combs. The process called ginning (Fig. 3.1).

 
18. Charakha: Charakha is a machine on which yarn was spun directly from ginned cotton in olden days.

19. Bales:
Ginned cotton is compressed tightly into bundles weighing approximately 200 kg called bales.


20. Silver:
Raw cotton from bales is cleaned, combed and straightened and finally converted into rope like strands called sliver. A sliver of cotton is a loose strand or rope of cotton fibers.


21. Yarn:
Sliver is pulled and twisted to that the fiber forms a strong thread or yarn.


22. Twisting of fibers into yarn increases the cohesion and strength of fibers.


23. Handlooms and power looms:
In villages the clothes from cotton are woven on small scale in handlooms. On large scale cotton clothes are made by machines in power looms.


24. Uses of cotton :
Cotton is used :

  • In manufacture of textile.
  • As absorbent in hospital.
  • As fillers in mattresses, pillows and quilts.
  • As a main raw material for the manufacturing of rayon and paper industry.
  • Clothes from cotton are extensively used as mops in household and for cleaning machines in industries.
25. Jute is the most extensively used fiber next to cotton.

26. It is obtained from the stem of plant called ‘putson’.

27. In India jute is mainly grown in West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.


28. Extraction of fibers :
  • Jute plants are cut at the time of flowering stage.
  • The cut plants are grouped at different places in the fields for few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down.
  • Plants are tied into small bundles.
  • Retting: The bundles are made to sink in stagnant water of pond for few days when the gummy skin rots out to separate fibers. The process is called ‘retting’.
  • Fiber is extracted from retted jute by hand, with jerks and pulls.
29. Uses of Jute :
  • Jute is extensively used for making gunny bags, potato sacks, carpets, curtains, coarse clothes and ropes etc.
  • These days, fine quality of jute is also used for making jute fabrics.
30. Primitive men and women had no idea about clothes.

31. Primitive life was confined mostly to the tropics where the climate was warm and no clothing was needed.

32. People migrated to colder regions only after the invention of fire.


33. During Stone Age, people wore bark, big leaves or animal skins.
:)

34 . People started wearing stitched clothes after the invention of needle about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago.

35. Cloth making was developed in three stages :
  • First stage was making cloth from plant fibers
  • Second stage began with the use of animal fibers, and
  • Third stage began with the development of manmade or synthetic fibers.
36. Types of clothing’s which we wear is influenced by climate, occupation, culture and daily needs.

37. Clothing is necessary for following reasons :

  • It protects against wind and weather.
  • It protects against injury.
  • It maintains the body heat.
38. Woolen and cotton clothes feel rough and that of rayon, nylon or polyester are smooth to touch.

39. Roughness of cotton and woolen fiber is due to the presence of many folds and uneven surface in it.

40. Silk, rayon, nylon and polyester are smooth because it has long plain, fine structure.


41. Clothes are made from threads and threads in turn, are spun from fibers.


42. All fibers are not suitable for making clothes while working in the kitchen and near fire.


43. Soft and long fibers like cotton, wool, nylon etc. are suitable to make yarn.


44. It is advised to wear cotton clothes while working in the kitchen and near fire.


45. Cotton wool:
The lumps of cotton fibers are called cotton wool. It can be used as absorbent, filling quilts, pillows etc. and making yarn.


46. Fabric:
Yarn can be woven or knitted manually or by machines into fabric.


47. Knitting:
The process of making fabric from single yarn.


48. Spinning:
The process of making yarn from fibers.


49. Weaving:
The process of arranging two sets of yarn together to make a fabric is called weaving.

 



Q.1. Classify the following fibers as natural or synthetic:
          nylon, wool, cotton, silk, polyester, jute.

Ans. (i)Natural fibers: wool, silk, cotton, jute.
   (ii)Synthetic fibers: nylon, polyester.


Q.2. State whether the following statements are true or false:


(a) Yarn is made from fibers.
(b) Spinning is a process of making fibers.
(c) Jute is the outer covering of coconut.
(d) The process of removing seed from cotton is called ginning.
(e)Weaving of yarn makes a piece of fabric.
 (f)Silk fiber is obtained from the stem of a plant.
(g)Polyester is a natural fiber.

Ans. 
(a) True              (b) False                 (c) False             (d) True
          (e) True              (f) False                  (g) False

Q.3. Fill in the blanks:

(a)  Plant fibers are obtained from ………….. and …………. .
(b)  Animals fibers are ………… and ………... .

Ans.
(a) cotton plants, jute plants
         (b) wool, silk.
Q.4. From which parts of the plant cotton and jute are obtained?

Ans. 
(i) Cotton – cotton balls (fruits)
          (ii)Jute – stem.

Q.5. Name two items that are made from coconut fiber.


Ans.
(i)Ropes
         (ii)Mats.

Q.6. Explain the process of making yarn from fiber.


Ans.
The process of making yarn from fibers is called spinning. In this process, fibers from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibers together to form yarn.
A simple device used for spinning is a hand spindle, also called takli.
 
Another hand operated device used for spinning is charkha.
Spinning of yarn on a large scale is done with the help of spinning machines.
 
 
                                                                       ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Q.1. Classify the following fibers into natural and manmade: cotton, nylon, jute, wool, silk, rayon, polyester.


Ans.
(i)Natural fibers – Cotton, jute, wool, silk.
         (ii)Man made fibers – Nylon, rayon, polyester.

Q.2. Name two examples each of the fibers obtained from animals and plants.


Ans.
(i)Animal fibers – wool, silk.
         (ii)Plant fibers – cotton, jute.

Q.3. Name the plant from which jute is obtained. From which of its part do we get jute ?


Ans.
Jute is obtained from ‘Putson’. It is obtained from its stem.

Q.4. Which part of these plants have fibers? (a)
cotton (b) mango (c) coconut
(d) banana.

Ans.
(a) cotton      –    seeds
         (b) mango     –    seeds
         (c) coconut    -    fruits
         (d) banana    -    leaf

Q.5. Name any two animals from which fibers are obtained ?


Ans.
Sheep and silkworm.

Q.6. Name the country which invented cotton clothing ?


Ans.
India.

Q.7. In which states of India, cotton is grown ?


Ans.
Cotton is grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh.

Q.8. Which type of soil is the best for the cultivation of cotton ?


Ans.
Black soil.

Q.9. On what factors does our type of clothing depend ?


Ans.
Type of clothing which we wear is influenced by climate, occupation, culture and daily needs.

Q.10. Which method is used to harvest cotton from the plants ?


Ans.
Hand picking.

Q.11. What is Ginning ?


Ans.
Ginning is the process of separating cotton fibers from its seeds.

Q.12. What are bales ?


Ans.
Raw cotton fibers are compressed into bundles of approximately 200 kg. These compressed cotton bundles are called bales.

Q.13. In which states of India jute is cultivated ?


Ans.
West Bengal, Bihar and Assam are the main producers of jute in India.

Q.14. Which type of soil is best suited for jute crop ?


Ans.
Alluvial soils in the delta regions of rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra is best for the cultivation of jute.

Q.15. In which season jute (putson) is cultivated ?


Ans.
Rainy season.

Q.16. Why jute plants are cut at flowering stage and not on complete maturation ?


Ans.
Jute plants may be cut at the time of flowering stage because a good quality of fiber is obtained at this stage. On complete maturation of plant, fibers of its stem become very hard.

Q.17. What are the important uses of jute ?


Ans.
(i) Jute is extensively used for making gunny bags, potato sacks, carpets, curtains, coarse clothes and ropes etc.
(ii)These days, fine quality of jute is also used for making jute fabrics.

Q.18. What were the wearing of the people of stone age ?


Ans.
During the stone age, people wore bark, big leaves of trees or animal skins to keep themselves warm.

Q.19. Why are cotton and woolen clothes rough and silk, rayon, nylon, polyester smooth to touch ?


Ans.
Roughness of cotton and woolen fiber is due to presence of many folds and uneven surfaces in it. Silk, rayon, nylon and polyester are smooth because they have long plain, fine structure.

Q.20. What is retting ? Explain how fibers are obtained from the jute plants.


Ans.
Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. The cut plants are grouped at different places in the field for few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down. The plants are now tied into small bundles. The bundles are made to sink in stagnant water of a pond for few days when the gummy skin rots out to separate fibers. The process is called ‘retting’. Fiber is extracted from the retted jute by hand, with jerks and pulls. The dried fibers are then tied together in small bundles.

Q.21. Why primitive life was confined to the tropics ? When it was possible for the people to migrate to colder regions ?


Ans.
Primitive men and women had no idea about clothes, and were at the mercy of their environment. Primitive life was confined mostly to the tropics where the climate was warm and no clothing was needed. Only after the invention of fire, it became possible for people to migrate to colder regions.

Q.22. What are the three stages in history of the development of clothing material ?


Ans.
In terms of raw materials, cloth making was developed in three stages. The first stage was cloth from plant fibers, such as flex, cotton, nettles and inner bark of the tree. The second stage began with the use of animal fibers especially wool and silk. Silk came to various parts of the world from China. The third stage in the history of clothing began in the late 19th century with the development of manmade or synthetic fibers like rayon, nylon and polyester. Now manmade fibers combined with other animal and or plant fibers are used for making clothes for improved strength, wearing ability and other qualities.

Q.23. In which season is cotton planted ? What is its course of growth ?


Ans.
It is planted early in the spring. Cotton plants grow steadily and soon become bushes of 3 to 6 feet height. After about 2 months, they bear white or yellowish flowers which turn pink or red after a few days. The petals of the flowers fall, leaving behind tiny green seeds. This later grows into spherical shaped structure of the size of a wall nut, which is called cotton ball. As the cotton balls grow steadily, the seeds and fibers grow inside. On maturing, the green balls begin to turn brown. On complete maturation they become ready to burst open, exposing the white fibers. As the fibers dry in the sun they become fluffy.

Q.24. What are the uses of cotton ?


Ans.
Cotton has a variety of uses. Some uses of cotton are given below :
  1. Cotton or cotton in combination with other fibers is used in manufacture of textiles.
  2. Cleaned cotton is used as absorbent in hospitals.
  3. Unspun cotton is used as fillers in mattresses, pillows and quilts.
  4. Cotton is used as a main raw material for manufacturing of rayon and paper industries.
  5. Due to high water absorption property, clothes made from cotton are extensively used as mops in household and for cleaning machines in industries.
Q.25. Explain various steps in manufacture of cotton fabric from cotton.

Ans.
Important steps in the manufacture of cotton fibers are as described below :
  1. Cotton is hand picked from the plants.
  2. Ginning : The picked cotton is taken to godowns where the seeds are pulled out of the cotton by steel combs.
  3. Bailing :Ginned cotton is compressed tightly into bundles weighing approximately 200 kg called bales.
  4. Raw cotton from bales is cleaned from straw and dried leaves, combed and straightened and finally converted into rope like strand called sliver.
  5. Spinning : To make this stand into yarn strong enough for wearing, it is pulled and twisted.
  6. Yarn is wound on big reels called ‘bobbins’. These bobbins of yarn are subjected to weave for making cloth.
  7. Weaving : Weaving from yarn is done in the looms.
  8. Bleaching and dying :Fabric made in the loom is grey in colour. The fabric is now bleached and dyed at a finishing plant.
 
                                                                                                                                               OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


Q.1. Match the following items given in Column A with that in Column B.

Column AColumn B
 
(a) Jute is obtained from

 

(b) Fiber from retted jute are extracted by

 

(c) Separation of fibers from jute stem

 

(d) Compressed bundles of cotton

 

(e) Cotton is collected from cotton plants by

 

(f) Separation of cotton from seeds

 

(g) Loose rope of cotton fibers

 

(h)Animal fibers

 

(i) Suitable for wearing in kitchen

 

(j) Used to spun yarns

(i) Charkha

 

(ii) Sliver

 
(iii) Bales
 

(iv) Retting
 
(v) Hand picking
 
(vi) Silk and wool
 
(vii) Stem of ‘putson’
 
(viii) Hands with jerks and pulls
 
(ix) Ginning
 

(x) Cotton clothes

 
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words :
  1. Clothes are made up of ………… .
  2. Different clothing materials have …………. properties.
  3. Cotton plants need …………. climate.
  4. Cotton is planted in the ………….. .
  5. …………… soil is excellent for the cultivation of cotton.
  6. Usually cotton is ………… picked from the plants.
  7. Separation of cotton fibers from its seeds is called ……….. .
  8. A ……….. of cotton is a loose strand of cotton fibers.
  9. In villages the cloth is woven on small scale in ………… .
  10. Jute is cultivated in ………… season.
  11. Jute is grown in ………….. soil.
  12. On large scale cotton clothes are made by machines in …………. .
  13. Twisting of fibers into yarn increases the …………. of fibers.
  14. Cotton fibers are obtained from the …………….. of cotton plant.
  15. Jute fiber is obtained from the …………. of jute plant.
  16. Tightly compressed bundles of cotton are called ………… .
  17. The process of getting fibers from the jute stem is called………… .
  18. People migrated to colder regions only after the invention of …………. .
Q.3. State whether the statements given below are True or False :
  1. All the plants have fibers in their body structure.
  2. Cotton is the most important industrial crop.
  3. India was the proud inventor of cotton clothing.
  4. Cotton plants need cold climate.
  5. Alluvial soil is best suited for cotton.
  6. Jute is obtained from the stem of ‘putson’.
  7. Jute fibers are quite strong, 6-8 feet long and have a silky lusture.
  8. Primitive men and women had no idea about clothes.
  9. Type of clothing which we wear is influenced by climate, occupation, culture and daily needs.
  10. Cotton and woolen clothes are smooth to touch.
  11. Clothes are made from threads, and threads, in turn, are spun from fibers.
  12. Coconut fibers are good for making yarn.
  13. Twisting of fibers into yarn increases cohesion.
  14. While working in kitchen we should wear cotton clothes.
  15. Clothes protect us from adverse weather condition.
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following questions :

(i) Which one of the following is a synthetic fiber ?

(a)Nylon                                  (b)Rayon
(c)Polyester                               (d)All of these

(ii) .  Which is a natural fiber ?

(a)Silk                                         (b)Nylon
(c)Rayon                                    (d)All of these

(iii) . The clothes are made up of thinner and thinner strands called

(a)yarn                                        (b)thread
(c)fiber                                        (d)fabric

(iv). Separation of fibers of cotton from its seeds is known as

(a)weaving                                 (b)spinning
(c)knitting                                   (d)ginning

(v) . Jute fibers are obtained from

(a)stem of jute plant                 (b)seeds of jute plant
(c)fruit covering of jute plant  (d)none of these

(vi) . Number of yarns used to make fabric by weaving and knitting are

(a)two sets of yarns in each case
(b)single yarn in each case
(c)two sets of  yarns in weaving and single in knitting
(d)single yarn in weaving and two sets in knitting

(vii) . Weaving of fabric is done in
    
           (a)handlooms                           (b)powerloom
            (c)both (a) and (b)                     (d)takli

(viii) . Which one is spinning device ?
               (a)Takli                                       (b)Loom
               (c)Charkha                                (d)Both charkha and takli

(ix).  Which of the following is a plant fiber ?
(a)wool                                       (b)silk
(c)cotton                                     (d)nylon

(x). The right time to cut jute plants is
(a)matured stage                      (b)before flowering stage
(c)flowering stage                     (d)any time after flowering
 
ANSWERS TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Match the items in Column A with Column B.
 
 
Column AColumn B
 
(a) Jute is obtained from

 

(b) Fiber from retted jute are extracted by

 

(c) Separation of fibers from jute stem

 

(d) Compressed bundles of cotton

 

(e) Cotton is collected from cotton plants by

 

(f) Separation of cotton from seeds

 

(g) Loose rope of cotton fibers

 

(h) Animal fibers

 

(i) Suitable for wearing in kitchen

 

(j) Used to spun yarns
(vii)Stem of ‘putson’
 
(viii)Hands with jerks and pulls
 
(iv)Retting
 
      (iii)Bales
 
(v)Hand picking
 
(ix)Ginning
 
      (ii)Sliver
 
      (vi)Silk and wool
 
      (x)Cotton clothes
 
      (i)Charkha
 
 
Q.2. Fill in the blanks :
      (i)fibers                                  (ii)different                               (iii)warm
      (iv)spring                                                   (v)Black                                (vi)hand
      (vii)ginning                               (viii)sliver                                     (ix)handloom
      (x)rainy                                      (xi)alluvial                                    (xii)Powerloom
      (xiii)cohesion and strength   (xiv)seeds                                    (xv)stem
      (xvi)bales                                  (xvii)retting                                  (xviii)fire.
Q.3. True/False :
      (i)True               (ii)True                  (iii)True                (iv)False             (v)False
     (vi)True             (vii)True                 (viii)True              (ix)True              (x)False
     (xi)True             (xii)False               (xiii)True               (xiv)True            (xv)True
Q.4. Choose the correct option :
 
  1. (d) All of these fibers are man-made.
  2. (a) Only silk is natural.
  3. (c) Fiber is thinnest unit of fabric.
  4. (d) Cotton fibers are separated from seeds by combing and the process is called ginning.
  5. (a) Jute fibers are obtained from the stem of jute plant.
  6. (c) In weaving two sets of yarn are arranged while knitting is done by a single yarn.
  7. (c) Weaving is done both in handlooms and powerlooms.
  8. (d) In looms fabric is woven while by takli and charkha yarn is made.
  9. (c) Cotton is a plant fiber.
  10. (c) Jute plants are usually cut at the flowering stage.