1. Abiotic components : Are the known abiotic factors. Most important are climatic and edaphic factors, the former include temperature, humidity, rain and snowfalls while the latter comprises the soil and substance.
  2. Abyssal : Deep ocean area of perfect darkness is termed abyssal.
  3. Agro ecology : Study of the relation between agriculture crop and environment.
  4. Agro ecology : The study of relationship between agriculture crop and environment.
  5. Biome : Any major terrestrial community having its own type of climate, animal life and vegetation. For example tundras, northern conifer forest, chapparal, tropical savanna, grassland and desert.
  6. Biome : These are large geographical regions having the same climatic conditions throughout and having ecosystem occupying this large regions.
  7. Biotic components : All organisms require energy for the life processes and materials for sustenance of life, the food supplies both. Consumers are animals that consume the green plants as food and thereby obtain energy. Herbivores (cattle, deer, goat) are first order consumers. Carnivores (lion, tiger etc.) are second order consumers. Producers (green plants) produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis and also synthesize proteins and fats.
  8. Deciduous forest : Found in temperate regions of north central Europe, eastern Asia and eastern USA, vegetation comprises broad leaved hard wood trees.
  9. Ecosystem : Is a unit of environment that can be identified and studied. It may be natural or artificial, small or large and temporary or stable. It has a definite organization having two structural components, biotic and abiotic (living and non-living).
  10. Ecosystem : The community together with physical environment forms an interacting system called ecosystem.
  11. Edaphic Factors : The soil and substratum factors which effect biotic organisms.
  12. Estuary : The channel of rivers submerged in the sea due to rise of sea level.
  13. Fauna : Population of different kinds of animals of a given area.
  14. Food chain : A food chain is simply a series of kinds of organisms through which food energy flows in an ecosystem.
  15. Food web : The network of overlapping food chain.
  16. Holard : The total amount of water present in soil.
  17. Monoculture : Cultivation of one crop at a time is called monoculture.
  18. Niche : Specific part of habitat where each species of a community lives and performs certain functions. Population of each species with a community has a separate ecological niche.
  19. Northern conifer forest : Taiga, south of tundra, extends as east-west band across North America and Eurassia.
  20. Topography : Detailed study of physical features of a limited area of land such as hills, plains, slopes, etc.
  21. Topography : The surface configuration of an area is termed topography.
  22. Tropical rain forest : Located around the equatorial regions, primarly in Central America, South America.
  23. Tundras : Arctic plain with permanently frozen subsoil, dwarfed vegetation and virtually treeless.