CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
  •  Deforestation:Cutting of forests and using that land for other purposes, is called Deforestation.
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  • Desertification:The soil erosion leaves less humus and makes the soil in fertile, and gradually that land converts into desert. It is called Desertification.
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  • Biosphere Reserve: The area that are meant for the conservation of biodiversity.
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  • Biodiversity: It refers to the variety of living organisms in a specific area.
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  • Flora and Fauna:The plants and animals, found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area.
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  • Endemic Species: The species of living organisms, that are found only in a particular area.
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  • Species: A group of organisms, which can freely interbreed in nature.
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  • Habitat: The living or dwelling place, where an organism survive, flourish and breed.
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  • Wildlife Sanctuaries:There are some area, that are reserve in a forest, and where wild animals are protected and preserved, are known as wildlife sanctuaries.
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  • National Park:The reserved area for wild life where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources.
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  • Endangered Animals:Those animals, whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction, are known as endangered animals.
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  • Ecosystem:The interaction between the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors is called as Ecosystem
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  • Red Data Book:The source book, which keeps a record of all endangered animals and plants.
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  • Reforestation:It is restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees of the same species, which existed in that forest.

  • Migration:The phenomenon of movement of a species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year for a specific purpose like breeding.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
  1. A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called………….  .
  2. Species found only in a particular area is known as ………….  .
  3. Migratory birds fly to far away places because of …………. Changes.
Ans.  a) zoo
          b) endemic species
          c) climatic.
 
Q.2. Differentiate between the following.
  1. Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve
  2. Zoo and wildlife sanctuary
  3. Endangered and extinct species
  4. Flora and fauna
Ans.a) Wildlife Sanctuary: The area that are reserve in a forest for the protection and preservation of wild animals. It also provides suitable living conditions also.

Biosphere Reserve:
The area, that are meant for the conservation of biodiversity. It also help of maintain the culture of that area. One biosphere reserve may also contain other protected area in it.
  1. Zoo:A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat.
        Wildlife Sanctuary:The area, that are reserve in a forest for the protection and preservation of wild animals.
  1. Endangered Species:The animal species whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction.
Extinct Species:The animal species, whose numbers are nil (zero), because of changes in their habitate and other calamities.
  1. Flora:The plants, that are found in a particular area are called flora. For example, Sal, teak, jamun etc.
Fauna:The animals, that are found in a particular area are called fauna. For example, Chinkara, cheeta, leopard etc.
 
Q.3. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following.
  1. Wild animals
  2. Environment
  3. Villages (Rural areas)
  4. Cities (Urban areas)
  5. Earth
  6. The next generation
Ans. 
  • Wild Animals:The deforestation leads to the change in the natural climate or habitat for the animals, so may the species will become endangered and ultimately extinct in the near future.

  • Environment:The deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth. It decreases the level of oxygen in the atmosphere with the increase of CO2level and ground water level is also lowered. The fertility of the soil will decrease and so, therefore-the chances of natural calamities increases.
  • Village (Rural areas):The decline in rainfall, the decrease in soil fertility and the natural calamities like flood are the effects of deforestation, that will effect adversely to the village.
  • Cities (Urban areas):The deforestation leads to increase in CO2concentration in the atmosphere, because of least plantation-this also leads to global warming as increase concentration of carbon dioxide traps the heat of sun rays. All these effects increases the pollution grade in the cities because of automobiles too.
  • Earth:The deforestation leads to soil erosion, change in the physical properties of the soil, removal of humus layer by which the hard and rocky layer exposes, All these ultimately converts the fertile land into desert.
  • The Next Generation:The deforestation shows the most ugly face to the survival of next generation with problems at every step in their survival. The situation will be so tough that all survival has to think first before taking even a step.

 
Q.4. What will happen if:
  1. we go on cutting trees.
  2. the habitat of an animal is disturbed.
  3. the top layer of soil is exposed.
 Ans. a) If we go on cutting trees, then:
  1. Survival of the mankind will become a threat, because of low oxygen concentration in atmosphere.
  2. We have to face high temperature and increased pollution level.
  3. Natural calamities will disrupt our life.
  4. The water cycle will be disturbed.
  5. If the habitat of an animal is disturbed, then:
  6. The animals will lost their natural habitat and ultimately at the periphery to become endangered
  7. The survival of animal will be difficult, because of the drought and the rise in temperature.
  8. If the top layer of soil is exposed, then:
  9. The exposed top layer looses all its nutrients, especially the humas
  10. The decrease in the water holding capacity of the soil.
  11. The vegetation will go off from the field, and desertification will be the result.
 
Q.5. Answer in brief.
  1. Why should we conserve biodiversity?
  2. Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
  3. Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
  4. What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
  5. What is Red Data Book?
  6.  What do you understand by the term migration?
Ans. a) Biodiversity refers to the variety in life existing on Earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment, so we should conserve as the food chain not to get disturb, otherwise whole of the ecosystem will be effected.
  1. Protected forests are also not completely safe for the wild animals, because poaching or capturing of the animal will be easy for the people living in the neighborhood and to destroy the wildlife.
  2. Tribes, usually the residents of jungle, are dependent on it for the fulfilment of their daily needs of life.
  3. The causes and consequences of deforestation are:
  4. It increases the temperature and pollution level on earth.
  5. It decreases the level of oxygen in the atmosphere and ground water level is also lowered.
  6. The rainfall and the fertility of the soil will decrease.
  7. The chances of natural calamities are more because of deforestation.
  8. It changes the soil properties.
  9. It effects the top layer of the soil, that exposes the lower hard and rocky layers.
  10. The Red Data Book is the only source as book, which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants.
  11. The term migration means the phenomenon of movement of a species from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year for a specific purpose like breeding.
 
Q.6. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are being continually cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects?

Discuss and prepare a brief report.


Ans.
It is not at all justified to cut trees for just to fulfill our demand, because the cutting -of trees has more disastrous effect than what we will get as benefit from its cutting.
 
Q.7. How can you contribute to the maintenance of green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
Ans.For the contribution to maintain of green wealth in my locality, the different actions to be taken are:
  1. not to allow anybody to cut any trees;
  2. always try to plant saplings in residing area;
  3. never ever show for the neglection to water the plants;
  4. always trimming to the plants time to time for the better growth of it.
 
Q.8. Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.

Ans.
The deforestation leads to reduced rainfall, because the plants/trees that undergo transpiration, converts the ground water turns into water vapour the water vapour goes upward and makes the cloud-which is the basic reason for rainfall.
 
Q.9. Find out about national parks in your state. Identify and show their location on the outline map of India.
Ans.Do yourself.
 
Q.10. Why should paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.
Ans.Paper should be saved for the following reasons:
  1. A large number of trees can be saved by saving paper. This application can check the deforestation.
  2. Saving paper also saves the energy and water that is needed for manufacturing paper.
  3. Amount of harmful chemicals used in paper making will show its least effect on livings by saving paper.
The ways to save paper are:
  1. Economical use of paper.
  2. Recycling of paper should be done.
  3. Paper should not be burnt.
 
Q.11. Complete the word puzzle:
Down
  1. Species on the verge of extinction.
  2. A book carrying information about endangered species.
  3. Consequence of deforestation.
Across
  1. Species which have vanished.
  2. Species found only in a particular habitat.
  3. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Ans.


 
ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
 
Q.1. What is deforestation?
Ans.It may be defined as the cutting of forests and using that land for other purposes like settlement of life.
 
Q.2. What is a food chain?
Ans.The process of transfer of energy from one trophic level to another is called as food chain. It may also be defined as the process of  “Eating and being eaten”.
 
Q.3. What are the natural causes of deforestation?
Ans.The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and severe drought and cutting of the trees.
 
Q.4. Give any two examples of the endemic flora of Pachmarhi Biosphere reserve.
Ans.Sal and wild mango.
 
Q.5. Define the term ‘Biodiversity’.
Ans.It refers to the variety in life existing on earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.
 
Q.6. How many trees can be cut to prepare 1 tonne of paper?
Ans.There are around 17 full grown trees to cut to make one tonne of paper. This paper can be recycled for 5-7 times and can be used.
 
Q.7. What is the function of Biosphere Reserve?
Ans.The Biosphere reserves help to maintain the biodiversity and culture of that area. One biosphere reserve may also contain other protected areas in it.
           
Q.8. Define the term flora and fauna.
Ans.The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed as flora and fauna. For example, Sal, teak, mango and jamun are flora and cheeta, leopard, wolf are fauna.
           
Q.9. Define endemic species with suitable example.
Ans. The animals that are exclusively found in a particular area only are called endemic species. For example, giant squiril.
 
Q.10. What reason is responsible for causing “Droughts”?
Ans.The increase in temperature due to global warming on earth disturbs the water cycle and reduce the rainfall, this situation ultimately leads to drought.
           
Q.11. What is the function of wildlife sanctuary?
Ans.The wildlife sanctuaries provide protection and suitable living conditions means to say-a natural habitat to wild animals.
 
Q.12. What is the function of National Park?
Ans. The National Park helps in preserving flora, fauna, landscape and historical objects of an area.
 
Q.13. What is reforestation?
Ans.The process of restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees of different and same species is called reforestation.
 
Q.14. Explain the term ‘Endangered species’.
Ans. Those species, whose numbers are diminishing slowly and are at the edge of facing extinction are called Endangered species.
 
Q.15. Why a species of animal become endangered?
Ans.A species of animal become endangered, as their survival has become difficult because of disturbances in their natural habitat.
 
Q.16. What are the purposes for deforestation?
Ans.The different purposes are:
  1. procuring land for cultivation.
  2. building houses and factories.
  3. making furniture or using as fuel.
 
             
Q.17. Write short notes on ‘Red Data Book’.
Ans.The book which keeps a record of all endangered animals and plants are called Red Dita Book. For further detail, we can get information from a website, i.e., www.wil.gov.inor www.wil.gov.page102.htm, etc.
 
Q.18. Why migratory birds migrated from one place 'to another?
Ans.Migratory birds migrate from an area and fly to far away to a specific area every year during a particular time because of climatic changes. For example, Surkhab migrated from Malaysia.
 
Q.19. Give the details of Pachmarhi Biosphere reserve.
Ans.The Pachmarhi Biosphere reserve consists of:
  1. One national park, named Satpura.
  2. Two wildlife sanctuaries, named Bori and Pachmarhi.
 
Q.20. What is Tiger Project?
Ans.The Tiger Project was launched on 1st April, 1973 by our government to protect the tigers of our country. Its main objective is to ensure the maintenance of a viable population of tigers in our country.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
 
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
  1. The causes of deforestation have been  …………… and ……………  .
  2. Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is termed as …………..  .
  3. The conversion of fertile land into desert is known as ………….. .
  4. ………… is a major cause which leads to the change in soil properties.
  5. In ………….. the carbon dioxide traps the heat of sun rays.
  6. The increase in temperature on earth disturbs the  ………….. and reduces  ………….. .
  7. ………….. is that part of the earth in which living organisms exist.
  8. ………… is a group of populations, which are capable of interbreeding with each other.
 
Q.2. Match the following items given in Column ‘A’ with that in Column ‘B’:
Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
  1. Cutting of forests
  2. Record of animals and plants
  3. Fauna
  4. Flora
  5. Tiger project
  6. Gaint squiril
  7. Wildlife sanctuaries
  8. Eating and being eaten
  1. Chinkara
  2. Teak
  3. Year 1973
  4. Endemic species
  5. Pachmarhi
  6. Food chain
  7. Deforestation
  8. Red data book
 
 
Q.3. State whether the statements given below are True or False:
  1. Red book keps a record of all endangered animals and plants.
  2. A group of organisms, which can freely interbreed in nature is called habitat.
  3. The Tiger project was launched on 1st April, 1973.
  4. The process of transfer of energy from one tropic level to another is called fauna.
  5. Sal and wild mango are the examples of the endemic flora of Pachmarhi Biosphere reserve.
 
Q.4. Choose the correct option in the following questions:

(i) Which of the following method is not effective in controlling floods?

a) Deforestation                                                b) Afforestation
c) To check the rainfall                                    d) Construction of dams
 

(ii) The term soil erosion means

a) increasing the amount of soil                       b) decreasing the amount of soil
c) removal of top fertile layers of soil             d)  removal of top sterile layers of soil

(iii)
Clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes is called

a) deforestation                                                b) food chain
c) biodiversity                                                  d) flora
 

(iv) Tiger Project was launched on

a) 2 June, 1970                                                 b) 1 April, 1973
c) 15 August, 1969                                          d)  1 July, 1973

(v)
Planting new trees is called
a) species                                                          b) deforestation
c) desertification                                               d) reforestation
 

(vi) Examples of the endemic flora of. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve are

a) sal and wild mango                                      b) banana and wheat
c) rose and maize                                             d) neem and grass
 

(vii)  Purposes of deforestation are


a) procuring land for cultivation

b) building houses and factories

c) making furniture or using as fuel

d) all of these


(viii) The book which keeps a record of all endangered animals and plants are called

a) blue data record                                          b) red data book
c) white data record                                       d) red data record
 

(ix) The conversion of fertile land into desert is known as

a) desertification                                              b) global warming
c) deforestation                                                d) biosphere
 

(x)The species which have been lost for ever are called


a) threatened species                                       b) rare species
c) extinct species                                             d) endangered species
 


(xi)Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in the year


a) 1952                                                            b) 1962
c) 1972                                                            d) 1982
 

(xii) The seasonal movement of animals from one habitat to another is known as

a) migration                                                    b) migrane
c) habitation                                                   d)  isolation

 
(xiii) Which is the reason for the loss of biodiversity?

a) Increase in population                                b) Deforestation

c) Habitat destruction                                     d) All of these
 

(xiv) The animals which are exclusively found in a particular area only are called


a) extinct species                                            b) endemic species
c) rare species                                                d)  migratory species
 


(xv) Which of the following is largest and multipurpose protected area?

a) A zoo                                                         b) A biosphere reserve
c) A sanctuary                                               d) A national park
 
ANSWER TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
  1. forest fires, severe drought                            ii. Deforestation
  2. desertification                                                iv.  Deforestation
  3. global warming                                              vi. water cycle, rainfall
  4. Biosphere                                                      viii. Species.
 
 
 
Q.2. Match the items under Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:
Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
  1. Cutting of forests
  2. Record of animals and plants
  3. Fauna
  4. Flora
  5. Tiger project
  6. Gaint squiril
  7. Wildlife sanctuaries
  8. Eating and being eaten
  1. Deforestation
  2. Red data book
  3. Chinkara
  4. Teak
  5. Year 1973
  6. Endemic spcies
  7. Pachmarhi
  8. Food chain
 
 
Q. 3. True/False:
     i) True                 ii) False                iii) True                  iv) False            
    v) True              
 
Q.4. Choose the correct option:
      (i) (b)                   (ii) (c)                  (iii) (a)                (iv) (b)                   (v) (d)
     
    (vi) (a)                 (vii) (d)                 (viii) (b)               (ix) (a)                   (x) (c)
 
    (xi) (c)                 (xii) (a)                 (xiii) (d)              (xiv) (b)                 (xv) (d).