COAL AND PETROLEUM
                                 POINTS TO REMEMBER
 
1. Natural Resources: The resources, that are obtained from nature are called Natural resources, for example, air, water, soil and minerals.
 
2. Inexhaustible Natural Resources: The resources, that are present in unlimited quantity in nature, and cannot be exhausted by human activities, for example: air, sunlight etc.
 
3. Exhaustible Natural Resources: The resources, that are present in limited quantity in nature, and can be exhausted by human activities, for example, coal, petroleum, minerals, forests etc.
 
4. Fossil: The remains of the part of plant or ‘animal or’ itself, preserved in the course of time, is called Fossil.
 
5. Fossil Fuels: Some exhaustible natural resources from the dead remains of living organisms, are known as fossil fuels, for example, coal, petroleum and natural gas.
 
6. Coal: A fossil fuel, that forms by the decay of vegetation, which existed millions of years ago. It is a non-crystalline form of carbon.
 
7. Carbonization: The slow process of conversion of dead vegetations into coal is called  carbonization.
 
8. Coke: It is an amorphous form of carbon, which is harder and denser than charcoal and is used as a fuel. It is obtained by heating soft coal in the absence of little supply of air. It is black in color. It is used in the manufacture of steel.
 
9. Destructive Distillation: The process of heating coal in the absence of air is called destructive distillation.
 
10. Coal Tar: A black thick liquid, i.e., a mixture of about 200 substances and is used to get various materials of everyday life/industry, like, drugs, dyes, plastics, perfumes, paints, naphthalene balls etc.
 
11. Coal Gas: It is a byproduct, that is obtained during the processing of coal to form coke, and is used as a fuel.
 
12. Petroleum: A fossil fuel, that is obtained by the decomposition of dead animals and      plants due to geological changes under the earth. It means oil from rocks. It is a dark oily liquid, i.e., insoluble in water.
 
Various constituents of petroleum and their uses are as follows:
S. No.Constituents of petroleumUses
1.Petroleum Gas in Liquid form (LPG)Fuel for home and industry
2.PetrolMotor fuel, aviation fuel, solvent for dry cleaning
3.KeroseneFuel for stoves, lamps and for jet aircrafts
4.DieselFuel for heavy motor vehicles, electric generators
5.Lubricating oilLubrication
6.Paraffin waxOintment, candles, vaseline etc
7.BitumenPaints, road surfacing
 
13. Petroleum Refining:
The process of separating the different constituents/fractions of petroleum is known as petroleum refining.
 
14. Natural Gas:
A very important fossil fuel, that is stored under high pressure and is easy to transport through pipes and referred as CNG (compressed natural gas). It is a non-polluting fuel. It helps in the manufacture of a number of chemicals and fertilizers.
 
 
NCERT TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (Page 62-63)

 
Q. 1. What are the advantages of using CNG and LPG as fuels?

Ans.
The advantages of using CNG and LPG as fuel are:
        (i) A non-polluting fuel for vehicles.
       (ii) It is used for power generation.
      (iii) It can be used directly for burning in homes and factories.
 
Q. 2. Name the petroleum product used for surfacing of roads.

Ans.
A petroleum product Bitumen' is used for surfacing of roads.
 
Q. 3. Describe how coal is formed from dead vegetation. What is this process

         called?

Ans.
About 300 million years ago the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas. Due to natural calamities, like flooding, these forests got buried under the soil. As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted to coal, that mainly contains carbon in it.
         The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation
.
 
Q. 4. Fill in the blanks:

a.     Fossil fuels are ………….. , ……….. and …………. .
b.     Process of separation of different constituents from petroleum is called………. .
Least polluting fuel for vehicle is ……….... .
Ans.
(a) coal, petroleum, natural gas
         (b) refining
         (c) CNG.
 
Q. 5. Tick True/False against the following statements:

         (a) Fossil fuels can be made in the laboratory.                   (T/F)

         (b) CNG is more polluting fuel than petrol.                       (T/F)

         (c) Coke is almost pure form of carbon.                             (T/F)

         (d) Coal tar is a mixture of various substances.                  (T/F)

         (e) Kerosene is not a fossil fuel.                                         (T/F)

Ans.  
(a) False           (b) False         (c) True           (d) True       (e) False
 
Q. 6. Explain why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.

Ans.
Fossil. fuels are limited in nature, and is used for the different human activities so called as exhaustible natural resources.
 
Q. 7. Describe characteristics and uses of coke.

Ans.
It is a tough, porous and black substances. It is almost pure the form of carbon. "Coke is obtained by heating soft coal in the absence or little supply of air". It is used in the manufacture of steel and in the extraction of many metals.
 
Q. 8. Explain the process of formation of petroleum.

Ans.
Petroleum occurs deep down in the earth between the layers of non-porous rocks.        Crude oil petroleum is formed by the decomposition of animal and plant remains over millions of years under the earth. Natural gas occurs above the layer of petroleum oil i.e., trapped under the rocks.
 
Q. 9. The following Table shows the total power shortage in India from 1991-1997. Show the data in the form of a graph. Plot shortage percentage for the years on the Y-axis and the year on the X-axis.

 
 
 
S. No.YearShortage (%)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
7.9
7.9
8.3
7.4
7.1
9.2
11.5

 
 
Ans.

 
                   
 
 
 
 
ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
 
Q. 1. Can we use all our natural resources forever?


Ans.
No, we can't use all our natural resources forever.
 
Q. 2. What is meant by carbonisation?


Ans.
The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called as carbonisation.
 
Q. 3. Name the petroleum product used for metalling the roads in place of coal tar?


Ans.
'Bitumen' a petroleum product is used for metalling the roads in place of coal tar.
           
Q. 4. What is the use of LPG?


Ans.
The LPG is' used as fuel gas for home and industry.
 
Q. 5. What are hydrocarbons?


Ans.
The compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbon.
 
Q. 6. Define natural resources.


Ans.
The resources,; that are obtained in nature are called natural resources, for example, air, water, soil and minerals.
 
Q. 7. What is meant by inexhaustible natural resources?


Ans.
The inexhaustible natural resources are in unlimited quantity and are not likely to be exhausted by human different activities. For example, sunlight, air etc.
 
 
Q. 10. What is meant by destructive distillation?


Ans.
The process of heating coal in the absence of air, to get coke is called as destructive distillation.
 
Q. 11. Define the terms `Petrochemicals'.


Ans.Petrochemicals are the substances obtained from petroleum and natural gas. They are used in the manufacture of detergents, fibres, polythene etc.
 
Q. 12. Can coal, petroleum and natural gas be prepared in the laboratory from

dead organisms?


Ans.
No; coal, petroleum and natural gas can't be prepared in the laboratory from dead organisms.
 
Q. 13. Name the different places in India, where natural gas has been formed.


Ans.In our country, Natural gas has been formed in. Tripura, Jaiselmer and in the offshore of Mumbai and in the Krishna Godavari delta.
 
Q. 14. Where do we get coal and how is it formed?


Ans.
We get coal deep in the Earth's crust in coal mines.
         It is formed by the slow decomposition of dead trees and other vegetable matter buried deep under the earth's crust with high pressure and temperature.
 
Q. 15. What is the difference between coke and coal?


Ans.

 

CokeCoal
(a) It is an amorphous form of carbon.
(b) It is obtained by heating soft coal in the
      absence. or limited supply of air.
(a) It is a non-crystalline form of carbon.
(b) It is obtained by the decay of vegetation,
      which existed millions of years ago.
 
Q. 16. What are the different constituents of petroleum?


Ans.
The different constituents of petroleum are:
         (a) LPG                             (d) Diesel
         (b) Petrol                           (e) Lubricating oil
         (c) Kerosene                      (f) Paraffin wax.
 
Q. 17. With the help of diagram, show the occurrence of petroleum from sedimentary rocks.


Ans.
Petroleum is usually found in the sedimentary rocks as a natural resource. It is an important raw material for the industry. It is usually found as a mixture of hydrocarbons, that can't be used as a good fuel without refining.
           
Q. 18. What is meant by ‘Natural gas’?


Ans.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel, that is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas (CNG). It is also used as a starting material for the manufacture of a number of chemicals and fertilisers.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Fig. 5.3.
Occurrence of petroleum under domes
 
Q.19. How would you demonstrate the process of destructive distillation of Coal in the laboratory?

Ans.





 
 
 

                      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 5.2.
Destructive distillation of coal
 
            After arranging the apparatus in the laboratory, coal powder is taken in hard glass test tube, and fix a cork with one hole and glass tube bent at 90°. Test tube is clamped with the stand. In second test tube, we take some amount of water and fix a rubber cork with two holes and each has glass tubes as per figure. Now set the apparatus as per figure and heat  the hard glass tube with burner-ultimately we get the solid residue in hard glass tube as coke.
 
Q. 20. What are the different, tips for the saving of petrol/diesel?


Ans.
Petroleum Conservation Research Association, advices people to save the petrol
diesel, in the following ways:
        (a) Drive at a constant and moderate speed.
        (b) Switch off the engine at traffic lights or when have to wait.
        (c) Ensure correct tyre pressure.
        (d) Ensure regular maintenance of the vehicle.
 
Q. 21. What are the four different uses of the petroleum products?


Ans.
The different uses of petroleum products are:
        (a) Petrol is used as motor fuel, aviation fuel and solvent for dry cleaning.
        (b) Kerosene is used as fuel for stoves, lamps and jet aircrafts.
        (c) Diesel is used as fuel for heavy motor vehicles, electric generators etc.
        (d) Paraffin wax is used as ointment, candles and vaseline.
 
Q. 22. What is a fuel? What are the characteristic of a good fuel?


Ans.
A fuel is a form of matter, that is used to produce heat energy or power by its burning.
           The characteristics of a good fuel are:
(a)   It must be easily available.
(b)  It must have low cost.
(c)   It should be clean and odourless.
(d)  It should be easily transportable.
(e)   It should produce more energy, in proportion to its mass.
(f)   It should leave very little ash after burning.
 
 
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


Q. 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

      i.         Coke is formed when coal is heated in ………. of air.
     ii.         Pencil lead is made from............
   iii.         Coal and petroleum sources are ……….
   iv.         Natural gas, petroleum and coal are............
     v.         Kerosene is not a.........
   vi.         ……… and …….... are the crystalline form of carbon.
 
Q. 2. Match the following items given in column ‘A’ with that in column ‘B’:

 
Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
  1. Petroleum
  2. Coal
  3. Oil refinery
  4. Good fuels
  5. Coke
  6. Fuels
  7. CNG
  8. Bitumen
a)     Provides more heat on burning
b)    Carbon
c)     Insoluble in water
d)    Wood
e)     Barauni
f)     Produce more energy
g)     Petroleum product
h)    Non-polluting fuel
 
Q. 3. State whether the statements given below are True or False:

           i.     Coke is harder and denser than charcoal.
         ii.     Exhaustible sources can't be exhausted by the human activities.
        iii.     Fossil fuels are inexhaustible natural resources.
        iv.     CNG stands for combined natural gas.
         v.     We get Naphthalene ball, made of coal tar.
        vi.     A good fuel must have leave very little ash after learning.
      vii.     Petroleum is found in pure form under the sedimentary rocks.
 
Q. 4. Choose the correct option in the followng questions:

         (i) Minerals are
              (a) natural resources                                        (b) inexhaustible natural resources
              (c) exhaustible natural resources                     (d) all of these
 
        (ii) Petroleum is mainly a mixture of which one of the following class?
              (a) Carbohydrates                                            (b) Carbogens
              (c) Hydrocarbons                                             (d) Alcohols
 
       (iii) Which one is not a coal product?
              (a) Coal tar                                                        (b) Coal gas
              (c) Lime  
 
       (iv) Which one of the following is a petrochemical?
              (a) Ammonia                                                     (b) Coke
              (c) Acetone                                                        (d) Paraffin wax
 
       (v) Conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called
              (a) carbonization                                               (b) distillation
              (c) coal gas                                                        (d) natural gas
 
      (vi) Full form of LPG
             (a) Light Petroleum Gas                                   (b) Liquified Petroleum Gas
             (c) Long Pipe of Gas                                        (d) Long Pertroleum Gas
 
      (vii) A natural gas stored under high pressure is called
             (a) CNG                                                           (b) LPG
             (c) KLG                                                           (d) PNP
 
     (viii) All fossil fuels are
             (a) exhaustible                                                (b) inexhaustible
             (c) petroleum products                                   (d) all of these
 
    (ix) Products obtained by the process of destructive distillation are
         (a) coke, coal-tar, coal gas                             (b) petrol, diesel, kerosene
         (c) paraffin wax, bitumen                              (d) compressed natural gas
 
   (x) The mining of oil under sea is termed as
         (a) distillation                                              (b) carbonisation
         (c) shore mining                                          (d) destructive distillation
 
  (xi) Main constituent of LPG is
        (a) methane                                                 (b) butane
       (c) ethane                                                    (d) propane
 
(xii) Name the petroleum product used for surfacing of roads.
      (a) butane                                                    (b) anthracite
      (c) bitumen                                                  (d) hydrocarbon
 
(xiii) Least polluting fuel for vehicle is
      (a) coke                                                        (b) kerosene
      (c) diesel                                                      (d) CNG
 
(xiv) Petroleum is found in pure form under the
      (a) sedimentary rocks                                  (b) water               
      (c) sand                                                        (d) coke
        
(xv) In which of the following places natural gas has not been formed in India?
      (a) Tripura                                                   (b) Jaisehner
      (c) Mumbai                                                  (d) Delhi
 
 
ANSWERS TO OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

 
Q. 1. Fill in the blanks:

         (i) absence                      (ii) graphite
       (iii) limited                      (iv) fossil fuels
        (v) fossil fuel                  (vi) Diamond, graphite
 
Q. 2. Match the items under Column ‘A’ and Column ‘B’:

Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
  1. Petroleum
  2. Coal
  3. Oil refinery
  4. Good fuels
  5. Coke
  6. Fuels
  7. CNG
  8. Bitumen
c)     Insoluble in water
d)    Wood
e)     Barauni
f)     Produce more energy
b)    Carbon
a)     Provides more heat on burning
h)    Non-polluting fuel
g)     Petroleum product
 
Q. 3. True or False:

     i) True                 ii) True                iii) False                iv) True            
    v) True                vi) True               vii) False          
 
Q.4. Choose the correct option:

      (i) (a)                   (ii) (c)                  (iii) (c)                (iv) (d)                   (v) (a)
     
    (vi) (b)                 (vii) (a)                 (viii) (c)               (ix) (b)                   (x) (c)
 
    (xi) (b)                 (xii) (c)                 (xiii) (d)              (xiv) (a)                 (xv) (d).