CELL REPRODUCTION
  • Amitosis : It is a type of cell division characterized by the absence of nuclear spindle and for unequal daughter nuclei. It occurs inside the nuclear membrane.
  • Anaphase : State of mitosis during which the daughter chromosomes separate and begin moving towards opposite poles of the cells.
  • Aster : Microtubule fibres radiating out from each cell pole during the metaphase stage of mitosis.
  • Astral rays : These are fine radiating microtubules from centriole.
  • Carcenogenic : These are the cancer causing factors.
  • Centromeres : A specific point forming a region where two chromatids remained joined along their length, the region of chromosomes with no genes.
  • Chiasma : Point of chromosomal interchange that become visible when the homologous chromosomes begin to separate at diplonema.
  • Chromatid : It refers to thread like strand formed from a chromosome during the early stages of the cell division.
  • Colchicine mitotic poison : Alkaloid colchicines Cochicum autumnae is a poison of cell division; it inhibits formation of mitotic spindle; chromosomes duplicate but remain within the same cell, such cells are called polyploidy cells.
  • Cytokinesis : Part of cell division that usually occurs during telophase of nuclear division; a cell plate is formed in cytoplasm in equatorial region of spindle and thereby the cell is divided into two daughter cells, each with a daughter nucleus.
  • Cytokinesis : Process of cleavage and separation of the cytoplasm at the final stage of mitosis.
  • Diploid : Cell of organism with two sets of chromosomes characteristic of body cells and is written as  2n.
  • Diplonema : Stage of meiosis during which paired homologous chromosomes begin to separate.
  • DNA deoxyribonucleic acid : It is a complex nucleic acid molecule found in chromosomes of almost all organisms; acts as primary genetical material.
  • G1 Period : Interval between the end of mitosis and the start of S Phase.
  • G2 Period : Interval between the end of S Phase and start of mitosis.
  • Haploid : Cell of organism with single set of chromosomes and represented as Nm Reproduction characteristic of gametes.
  • Homologous pair : A pair of chromosomes of the same size and shape possessing related genes and governing the same sets of traits.
  • Interphase : An active phase growth in which synthetic activity of cell goes on and is made up of G1, S, G2 sub-stages.
  • Interphase : Non dividing state of cells is termed interphase.
  • Melosis : Division process occurring during gametic formation that reduces the number of chromosomes in each cell to one half.
  • Metaphase : The chromosomes arrange themselves on the equator in a linear row during the phase.
  • Mitosis : Process of cell division, whereby the genetic materials is precisely divided and two new chromosomes, set identical to the original are generated.
  • Mitotic Spindle : Microtubules forming bipolar fibrous structure during prophase and component of mitotic apparatus.
  • Prophase : It is the first stage of nuclear division in which nuclear membrane disappears. Chromosomes are formed and spindle formation occurs.
  • Telophase : The final stage of cell division in which the nucleus begins to return to the interphase condition.
  • Tetraploid : Possessing four sets of chromosomes. It is symbolized by 4n.