C
CABLE (ELECTRI)
Electrical wires assembled together in a bundle and covered with rubber for safety reasons.
  
CALAMITY
The cause great suffering and loss due to the failure of monsoon.
 
CALCIUM
The twentieth element of the Periodic Table. Symbol: Ca
A Calcium atom has 20 protons, 20 electrons and 20 neutrons. Calcium is a soft, grey, alkaline earth metal. It is also essential in teeth and bones of living organisms.
 
CALIPER(S)
An instrument used to measure the internal and external diameters of spherical and cylindrical objects. The internal and external calipers consist of a pair of adjustable hinged jaws.
 
CAMOUFLAGE
To conceal by the use of a disguise to make someone or something appear to be part of its surrounding to hide away from danger.
Example: a soldier in his uniform with leaves placed over his helmet is camouflaged by the forest so that he cannot be easily seen by his enemies.
 

CAMPHOR
A white substance with a strong smell. It is used to keep insects away.
 
CANNIBAL
A human being or animal that eats the flesh of his/her own kind.
 
CAPILLARIES (PURAL)/CAPILLARY (SINGULAR)
The smallest blood vessels responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to individual cells. Capillaries are the finest type of thin-walled blood vessels and often are no thicker than a hair. They connect the arterioles (smallest division of arteries) and the venules (smallest division of veins).
 
CARBOHYDRATES
Organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are produced by green plants during the process of photosynthesis. Starchy foods like bread, potatoes, rice, corn and tuber contain carbohydrates that our body needs for energy.
 
CARBON
The sixth element of the Periodic Table  Symbol:  C
A Carbon atom has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons. Carbon combines with itself and many other elements to form a huge variety of organic compounds. Macromolecules such as diamond and graphite are made up of carbon.
 
CARBON CYCLE
Carbon is transferred between the environment and the organisms in the escosystem.  Combined processes like combustion, respiration and decomposition enable carbon to return to the environment in the form of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds, while carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere through photosynthesis.
 
CARBON DIOXIDE
A heavy, colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas.  Symbol:  CO2
It dissolves in water to produce a weak acid called carbonic acid.
It is formed and released into the atmosphere during respiration by all living things and in the decay or burning of animal and vegetable matter.
It is also formed by the combustion of carbon and carbon compounds (such as fossil fuels and biomass).
 
 
CARNIVORE
An animal that obtains its food energy by eating other animals. It is also known as a secondary consumer.
 
CARPEL
The female reproductive organ of a plant. The carpel comprises of an ovary, a style above the ovary and stigma.
 
CARTILAGE
The strong elastic substance attached to the bone present in certain parts of the body that gives shape and support to the body.
 
CATALYST
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any chemical changes itself at the end.
 
CATERPILLAR
The larval stage of an insect with many legs that turns later into a moth or butterfly.
 
CELL SAP
A fluid containing water and dissolved substances found in the large vacuole of plant cells.
Its concentration varies to help in the process of osmosis in plant cells.
 
CELL (IN LIVING THINGS)
The basic unit of life. It is made up of protoplasm. The basic features of a cell are the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus(DNA). All organisms (living things) are made up of one or more cells.
 
CELL DIVISION
The splitting of a mother cell to produce two new daughter cells.
 
CELL MEMBRANE(PLASMA MEMBRANE)
A thin, partially permeable layer that surrounds the cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
 
 
CELL WALL
The rigid structure that supports the cell and provides a regular shape. It is made of cellulose.
 
CELLULOSE
A complex carbohydrate that makes up most of the cell walls in plants and provides support for the plants.
 
CELSIUS
A scale on which temperature is measured. Celsius is also known as Centigrade.  Symbol :  0C
On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is at 0 0C and its boiling point is at 100 0C.
 
CERAMIC(S)
Substance which is heat-resistant and made from baked clay. It is hard, has a high melting point, does not corrode and is a poor conductor of electricity.
Examples: ceramic clay pot, ceramic case, ceramic tile.
 
CERVIX
A circular ring of muscles at the lower part of the uterus leading into the vagina.
During childbirth, these muscles relax and the cervix becomes wider, allowing the passage of the baby out of the uterus.
 
CHEMICAL
A substance such as a gas, a liquid or a solid which is involved in a chemical reaction. In a school laboratory, chemicals are stored away safely.
 
CHEMICAL CHANGE
A change in which atoms become bonded with other atoms. Most chemical changes are irreversible and produce new substances.
Examples: burning of paper, corrosion of metal.
 
CHEMICAL DIGESTION
This occurs in the digestive system where large food molecules are broken down into smaller components until they are fine enough to enter the bloodstream. It involves many chemical and enzymatic reactions.
 
 
CHEMICAL EQUATION
A group of symbols that represents a chemical reaction. It is an equation that describes the reactants involved (on the left) and the products (on the right) in a chemical reaction.
 
CHEMICAL FORMULA
A concise way of stating the number and types of atoms in one molecule of the substance. A symbolic representation of chemical elements and the composition of compounds. It is also a quick method of showing how a chemical reaction occurs.
 
CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENEGY
Energy that is stored in a substance and released during a chemical reaction.
Examples of substances with chemical energy:
Battery, food, wood, fossil fuels.
 
CHEMICAL REACTION
A process by which original substances change into new substances.
Heat and/or light are usually absorbed or released during the process.
It involves the formation or destruction of bonds between atoms.
 
CHEMISTRY
The scientific study of matter of the Earth, its properties and interactions between energy and matter.
 
CHLORINE
The seventeenth element of the Periodic table.
Symbol:  Cl
Chlorine is a greenish- yellow gas and is used as a bleaching agent or as a disinfectant.
 
CHLOROPHYLL
Green pigments found in the chloroplast of plant cells. They absorb light energy from the Sun and combine with carbon dioxide and water to make food for the plant.
A green tiny disc-like structure found in the cytoplasm of plant cells and is essential for the process of photosynthesis. Chloroplast contains chlorophyll.

CHROMOSOMES

Long tread- like structures of genes that carry hereditary information. They are composed of DNA and protein and are located within the nucleus of our cells.
 
CIRCUIT
There are 2 kinds of circuits – open and closed. Electricity must be available and flow along a circuit in order to achieve its purpose. Electric currents can only flow through a closed circuit.
 
CLAW
The long, shape, pointed nails on the feet of a bird or animal.
 
CLAYEY SOIL
Heavy, soft earth or mud. It is used to make pots, toys, bricks etc.
 
                                               
COAL
A Type of fossil fuel that is hard, dark-coloured and rock-like.
It is formed from decomposed plants trapped underground for over millions of years.
 
 
COCHLEA
A coiled tube, resembling a snail shell, which acts as a hearing device for the inner ear. It is filled with fluid and covered with tiny hairs. It sends impulses to the auditory nerves leading to the brain.
 
COIR
The rough hair-like outer covering of the coconut, used for making ropes, mats, etc.,
 
COMBINATION
A mixture of different things. It is also the process by which two or more substances combine to form a new substance.
 
COMBUSTION
A chemical reaction whereby a substance can burn or combine with oxygen to form new compounds. During combustion, light and heat energy are given off.
 
COMMENSALISM
A relationship between two organisms whereby one benefits without harming the other.
 
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
An infectious disease that can be transmitted from one individual to another.
Example: Common cold, malaria
 
COMMUNITY
A group of different populations of plants and animals living together and interacting with one another in a shared habitat.
 
COMPOST
A mixture of decaying organic matter, as from leaves and manure used to improve soil structure and provide nutrients.
 
COMPOUND
A pure substance formed when two or more different elements are chemically combined in definite proportions.
Examples: water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen; carbon dioxide is made up of carbon and oxygen.

COMPRESSION (IN SOUND WAVES)
A region of high pressure formed when air is compressed.
 
CONCAVE
This describes a curved surface, like the inside of a hollow sphere. A concave surface curves inwards.
 
CONDENSATION
A process by which a substance changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state as a result of cooling.
 
CONDENSER
A coiled tube, resembling a snail shell, which acts as a hearing device for the inner ear. It is
 
CONDUCTION
The transfer of heat energy from particle to particle without the obvious movement of the substance. It occurs most effectively in solids. It also refers to the transfer of electrical energy through a material by the flow of charged particles (electrons).
 
CONDUCTOR
Something that allows electricity, heat, light, sound or other forms of energy to flow through readily. Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat.
 
CONSERVATION
The protection and preservation of natural resources and the environment. We must learn to use our energy resources wisely and carefully for the benefits of future generations. Energy resources can be conserved by reducing, reusing and recycling.
 
CONSTELLATION
A group of stars some of which have names.
 
CONSTIPATION
A condition in which a person is unable to empty the bowels.
 
 
CONVECTION
Heat transfer from one region to another by the circulatory movement of a gas or a liquid, allowing heat to distribute. This occurs only in gases and liquids.
 
CONVECTION CURRENT
The movement of a gas or a liquid where the hot part rises and the cold part sinks.
 
CONVERGENT BEAM
Light rays that gather closer together and may pass through a common point.
 
CONVEX
This describes curved surfaces, like the outside of a sphere or the bottom of a bowl. Convex surfaces curve outwards.
 
CORE
The deepest central part of the Earth which is divided into a solid inner core and a liquid outer core.
 
CORNEA
The transparent skin covering the front of the lens, allowing light to enter the eye.
 
CORROSION
A process which occurs when metals are chemically attacked upon reaction with oxygen and water in their immediate surroundings.
 
COSMONAUT
A person who travels through space in a spaceship.
 
COTYLEDON
The part of the seed that contains starch, which is a source of food for the germination of the seed.
 
COULOMB
The unit measurement of an electrical charge.
 
CRACKING
The process by which heat is used to break down big hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones.
 
CRANIUM
The skull. The round, hollow bone at the top of the head that protects brain.
 
CRATER
A deep hole in the ground made by a heavy falling object or bomb.
 
CREEP
Moving the body close to the ground.
Example: Snakes
 
CREEPER
A plant which climbs up trees or wall or grows along the ground.
 
CROP
Plant cultivated for food such as rice, or for raw material such as cotton.
 
CROSS POLLINATION
The transfer of pollen from an another of a flower onto a stigma of another flower belonging to a different plant of the same species.
 
CROW BAR
A thick iron rod used to lift heavy objects off the ground or to break open the boxes.
 
CRUST
The thin outermost layer of the earth’s surface.
 
CRYSTALLISATION
The formation of crystals either from a liquid or from cooling a saturated solution.
 
CUBIT
The length of the human arm from the wrist to the elbow.
CULTIVATE
To prepare soil for agriculture and to grow crops on it.
 
CYTOPLASM
A jelly-like substance that fills a cell and is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains many cell parts and is where chemical reactions take place.
 

                                                            Do you Know?
The cuttlefish is one of the fastest adapting camouflage animals. It is able to change its colour from red to brown in less than one second.

In  1819,  Hans  Christian  Oersted  (1777-1851),  a  Danish  physicist,  accidentally discovered that an electric current change the direction of a nearby compass needle. The deflection of the needle was  caused by  the magnetic  field around the wire that carried the current.

Classification of organisms helps us to
·         Name them,
·         Identify them,
·         Understand them and to determine their relationship with one another.
This is how a tiger is classified.
 
Kingdom                      :  Animalia
Phylum                        :  Chordata
Class                           :  Mammalia
Order                           :  Carnivora
Family                         :  Felidae
Genus                         :  Phantera
Species                       :  Tigris
 
 
The amount of carbon in the human body is enough to fill about 9,000 ‘lead’ pencils.