Electrical wires assembled together in a bundle and covered with rubber for safety reasons.
The cause great suffering and loss due to the failure of monsoon.
The twentieth element of the Periodic Table. Symbol: Ca
Calcium atom has 20 protons, 20 electrons and 20 neutrons. Calcium is a
soft, grey, alkaline earth metal. It is also essential in teeth and
bones of living organisms.
instrument used to measure the internal and external diameters of
spherical and cylindrical objects. The internal and external calipers
consist of a pair of adjustable hinged jaws.
To conceal by the use of a disguise to make someone or something appear to be part of its surrounding to hide away from danger.
a soldier in his uniform with leaves placed over his helmet is
camouflaged by the forest so that he cannot be easily seen by his
A white substance with a strong smell. It is used to keep insects away.
A human being or animal that eats the flesh of his/her own kind.
CAPILLARIES (PURAL)/CAPILLARY (SINGULAR)
smallest blood vessels responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients
to individual cells. Capillaries are the finest type of thin-walled
blood vessels and often are no thicker than a hair. They connect the
arterioles (smallest division of arteries) and the venules (smallest
division of veins).
compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are produced
by green plants during the process of photosynthesis. Starchy foods
like bread, potatoes, rice, corn and tuber contain carbohydrates that
our body needs for energy.
The sixth element of the Periodic Table Symbol: C
Carbon atom has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons. Carbon combines
with itself and many other elements to form a huge variety of organic
compounds. Macromolecules such as diamond and graphite are made up of
Carbon is transferred
between the environment and the organisms in the escosystem. Combined
processes like combustion, respiration and decomposition enable carbon
to return to the environment in the form of carbon dioxide and other
carbon compounds, while carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere
A heavy, colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Symbol: CO2
It dissolves in water to produce a weak acid called carbonic acid.
is formed and released into the atmosphere during respiration by all
living things and in the decay or burning of animal and vegetable
It is also formed by the combustion of carbon and carbon compounds (such as fossil fuels and biomass).
An animal that obtains its food energy by eating other animals. It is also known as a secondary consumer.
The female reproductive organ of a plant. The carpel comprises of an ovary, a style above the ovary and stigma.
The strong elastic substance attached to the bone present in certain parts of the body that gives shape and support to the body.
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any chemical changes itself at the end.
The larval stage of an insect with many legs that turns later into a moth or butterfly.
A fluid containing water and dissolved substances found in the large vacuole of plant cells.
Its concentration varies to help in the process of osmosis in plant cells.
CELL (IN LIVING THINGS)
basic unit of life. It is made up of protoplasm. The basic features of a
cell are the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus(DNA). All organisms
(living things) are made up of one or more cells.
The splitting of a mother cell to produce two new daughter cells.
CELL MEMBRANE(PLASMA MEMBRANE)
A thin, partially permeable layer that surrounds the cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell.
The rigid structure that supports the cell and provides a regular shape. It is made of cellulose.
A complex carbohydrate that makes up most of the cell walls in plants and provides support for the plants.
A scale on which temperature is measured. Celsius is also known as Centigrade. Symbol : 0C
On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is at 0 0C and its boiling point is at 100 0C.
which is heat-resistant and made from baked clay. It is hard, has a
high melting point, does not corrode and is a poor conductor of
Examples: ceramic clay pot, ceramic case, ceramic tile.
A circular ring of muscles at the lower part of the uterus leading into the vagina.
During childbirth, these muscles relax and the cervix becomes wider, allowing the passage of the baby out of the uterus.
substance such as a gas, a liquid or a solid which is involved in a
chemical reaction. In a school laboratory, chemicals are stored away
A change in which atoms become bonded with other atoms. Most chemical changes are irreversible and produce new substances.
Examples: burning of paper, corrosion of metal.
occurs in the digestive system where large food molecules are broken
down into smaller components until they are fine enough to enter the
bloodstream. It involves many chemical and enzymatic reactions.
group of symbols that represents a chemical reaction. It is an equation
that describes the reactants involved (on the left) and the products
(on the right) in a chemical reaction.
concise way of stating the number and types of atoms in one molecule of
the substance. A symbolic representation of chemical elements and the
composition of compounds. It is also a quick method of showing how a
chemical reaction occurs.
CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENEGY
Energy that is stored in a substance and released during a chemical reaction.
Examples of substances with chemical energy:
Battery, food, wood, fossil fuels.
A process by which original substances change into new substances.
Heat and/or light are usually absorbed or released during the process.
It involves the formation or destruction of bonds between atoms.
The scientific study of matter of the Earth, its properties and interactions between energy and matter.
The seventeenth element of the Periodic table.
Chlorine is a greenish- yellow gas and is used as a bleaching agent or as a disinfectant.
pigments found in the chloroplast of plant cells. They absorb light
energy from the Sun and combine with carbon dioxide and water to make
food for the plant.
green tiny disc-like structure found in the cytoplasm of plant cells
and is essential for the process of photosynthesis. Chloroplast contains
tread- like structures of genes that carry hereditary information. They
are composed of DNA and protein and are located within the nucleus of
There are 2 kinds of
circuits – open and closed. Electricity must be available and flow along
a circuit in order to achieve its purpose. Electric currents can only
flow through a closed circuit.
The long, shape, pointed nails on the feet of a bird or animal.
Heavy, soft earth or mud. It is used to make pots, toys, bricks etc.
A Type of fossil fuel that is hard, dark-coloured and rock-like.
It is formed from decomposed plants trapped underground for over millions of years.
coiled tube, resembling a snail shell, which acts as a hearing device
for the inner ear. It is filled with fluid and covered with tiny hairs.
It sends impulses to the auditory nerves leading to the brain.
The rough hair-like outer covering of the coconut, used for making ropes, mats, etc.,
A mixture of different things. It is also the process by which two or more substances combine to form a new substance.
chemical reaction whereby a substance can burn or combine with oxygen
to form new compounds. During combustion, light and heat energy are
A relationship between two organisms whereby one benefits without harming the other.
An infectious disease that can be transmitted from one individual to another.
Example: Common cold, malaria
A group of different populations of plants and animals living together and interacting with one another in a shared habitat.
A mixture of decaying organic matter, as from leaves and manure used to improve soil structure and provide nutrients.
A pure substance formed when two or more different elements are chemically combined in definite proportions.
Examples: water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen; carbon dioxide is made up of carbon and oxygen.
COMPRESSION (IN SOUND WAVES)
A region of high pressure formed when air is compressed.
This describes a curved surface, like the inside of a hollow sphere. A concave surface curves inwards.
A process by which a substance changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state as a result of cooling.
A coiled tube, resembling a snail shell, which acts as a hearing device for the inner ear. It is
transfer of heat energy from particle to particle without the obvious
movement of the substance. It occurs most effectively in solids. It also
refers to the transfer of electrical energy through a material by the
flow of charged particles (electrons).
that allows electricity, heat, light, sound or other forms of energy to
flow through readily. Metals are good conductors of electricity and
The protection and
preservation of natural resources and the environment. We must learn to
use our energy resources wisely and carefully for the benefits of future
generations. Energy resources can be conserved by reducing, reusing and
A group of stars some of which have names.
A condition in which a person is unable to empty the bowels.
transfer from one region to another by the circulatory movement of a
gas or a liquid, allowing heat to distribute. This occurs only in gases
The movement of a gas or a liquid where the hot part rises and the cold part sinks.
Light rays that gather closer together and may pass through a common point.
This describes curved surfaces, like the outside of a sphere or the bottom of a bowl. Convex surfaces curve outwards.
The deepest central part of the Earth which is divided into a solid inner core and a liquid outer core.
The transparent skin covering the front of the lens, allowing light to enter the eye.
A process which occurs when metals are chemically attacked upon reaction with oxygen and water in their immediate surroundings.
A person who travels through space in a spaceship.
The part of the seed that contains starch, which is a source of food for the germination of the seed.
The unit measurement of an electrical charge.
The process by which heat is used to break down big hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones.
The skull. The round, hollow bone at the top of the head that protects brain.
A deep hole in the ground made by a heavy falling object or bomb.
Moving the body close to the ground.
A plant which climbs up trees or wall or grows along the ground.
Plant cultivated for food such as rice, or for raw material such as cotton.
transfer of pollen from an another of a flower onto a stigma of another
flower belonging to a different plant of the same species.
A thick iron rod used to lift heavy objects off the ground or to break open the boxes.
The thin outermost layer of the earth’s surface.
The formation of crystals either from a liquid or from cooling a saturated solution.
The length of the human arm from the wrist to the elbow.
To prepare soil for agriculture and to grow crops on it.
jelly-like substance that fills a cell and is found between the cell
membrane and the nucleus. It contains many cell parts and is where
chemical reactions take place.
Do you Know?
The cuttlefish is one of the fastest adapting camouflage animals. It is able to change its colour from red to brown in less than one second.
1819, Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), a Danish physicist,
accidentally discovered that an electric current change the direction of
a nearby compass needle. The deflection of the needle was caused by
the magnetic field around the wire that carried the current.
Classification of organisms helps us to
· Name them,
· Identify them,
· Understand them and to determine their relationship with one another.
This is how a tiger is classified.
Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Mammalia
Order : Carnivora
Family : Felidae
Genus : Phantera
Species : Tigris
The amount of carbon in the human body is enough to fill about 9,000 ‘lead’ pencils.