BACTERIA (PLURAL) / BACTERIUM (SINGULAR)
single-called (unicellular) microscopic organism. Its DNA is reproduced
by a form of cellular division known as binary fission.
Examples: Lactobacillus, Acidophilus, Cocci, E. Coli
The protective outer layer of tree trunks and branches. It is tough and made up mostly of dead cells.
An instrument used to measure air pressure of the surroundings. The unit of measurement is millibars.
solution that reacts with acids to produce salt and water. It turns
damp red litmus paper to blue, tastes bitter and is often slimy. A
soluble base is called an alkali.
Examples: metal oxides such as Calcium Oxide (CaO)
storage device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy,
producing an electric current when connected in a circuit, either in
parallel or in series.
An instrument used to measure mass.
A liquid drink other than water.
Example: tea, coffee
Two strips of different metals welded together.
Asexual reproduction by splitting a single-celled organism into two similar cells.
The study of chemicals and chemical changes in living organisms.
Materials that can be decomposed into simple substances and returned to the soil through decaying.
A mixture of gases that can be used as fuel.
The study of the structure and functions of living things.
Any sort of plant or animal waste which is renewable, and through decomposition, can be converted into liquid and gaseous fuels.
The part of the earth which contains living organisms.
field of life sciences that involves the use of microorganisms (such as
bacteria or yeast) or biological substances (like enzymes), to produce
certain drugs and foodstuff.
environment where living organisms are responsible for biotic factors
that affect the ability of others living things to survive in that
An example of common biotic factor which can affect the human population is disease.
The action or process of being born.
A substance, which is black, highly viscous and sticky like tar, that is used for paving roads.
A bag inside the body in which urine collects before it is passed out.
Example: Urinary bladder
mixture consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
that is pumped by the heart through the arteries and veins within the
BLOOD CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
that circulates blood within the body to deliver nutrients (food) and
oxygen to the cells and remove waste products from them.
It consists of the heart, blood vessels, the blood and the lungs.
The liquid part of the blood that contains water, blood protein, inorganic substances, digested food and cell waste.
An opening for breathing at the top in mammals such as whales and dolphins.
Fats in some sea mammals like seals and whales.
The changing of a liquid into a gas (vapour). This change occurs at the boiling point.
The temperature at which a liquid changes rapidly to vapour.
The branch of science, which deals with the study of plants.
The fifth element of the Periodic Table.
A Boron atom has 5 protons, 5 electrons and 6 neutrons. Boron is a crystalline non-metallic elements.
part of the central nervous system that is located within the skull.
The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor
of information for the body.
BREATHING / BREATHE
The process of drawing air into and releasing air out of the lungs.
To reproduce or make new young plants or animals.
Inflammation of the air passage in the lungs. A person suffering from bronchitis may not live if it is left untreated.
The constant movement of particles suspended in a liquid or a gas in a random manner.
An undeveloped protruded swelling on a plant stem, often covered by protective scales and will grow into a new plant.
process of asexual reproduction in which a bud develops from a part of
the parent cell. Yeast breaks away from the parent and develops into a
A short, vertical
underground stem consisting of thick fleshy leaves that contain stored
food for the plant and allows the plant to reproduce.
Examples: onion bulb, tulip bulb, potato tuber.
A heating apparatus that uses gas for burning.
The ability to float due to the upward supportive force of water. Buoyancy is determined by the density of water.
Do you Know?
Birds perched on electrical energy cables are not electrocuted because it is easier for the electrical energy to travel through the cables than the birds. The cables have a much lower resistance than birds.
Some biodegradable plastics slowly decompose in sunlight into smaller molecules which can then be broken down naturally by microorganisms.
The brain uses 20% of the body’s supply of oxygen and glucose. The brain cannot store oxygen and glucose, Therefore an insufficient supply of either one will cause adverse effects to the brain.
Brownian movement is the random movement of particles in liquids or gases which can be observed when the particles collide with each other. This concept is based on the experiment carried out by a botanist named Robert Brown (1827). He observed the movement of pollen suspended in water using a microscope.