B
BACTERIA (PLURAL) / BACTERIUM (SINGULAR)
A single-called (unicellular) microscopic organism. Its DNA is reproduced by a form of cellular division known as binary fission.
Examples: Lactobacillus, Acidophilus, Cocci, E. Coli
 
BARK
The protective outer layer of tree trunks and branches. It is tough and made up mostly of dead cells.
 
BAROMETER
An instrument used to measure air pressure of the surroundings. The unit of measurement is millibars.
 
BASE
A solution that reacts with acids to produce salt and water. It turns damp red litmus paper to blue, tastes bitter and is often slimy. A soluble base is called an alkali.
Examples: metal oxides such as Calcium Oxide (CaO)
 
BATTERY
A storage device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, producing an electric current when connected in a circuit, either in parallel or in series.
 
BEAM BALANCE
An instrument used to measure mass.
 
BEVERAGE
A liquid drink other than water.
Example: tea, coffee
 
BIMETALLIC STRIP
Two strips of different metals welded together.
 
BINARY FISSION
Asexual reproduction by splitting a single-celled organism into two similar cells.
 
BIOCHEMISTRY
The study of chemicals and chemical changes in living organisms.
 
BIODEGRADABLE
Materials that can be decomposed into simple substances and returned to the soil through decaying.
 
BIOGAS
A mixture of gases that can be used as fuel.
Example: methane.
 
                                                           
BIOLOGY
The study of the structure and functions of living things.
 
BIOMASS
Any sort of plant or animal waste which is renewable, and through decomposition, can be converted into liquid and gaseous fuels.
 
BIOSPHERE
The part of the earth which contains living organisms.
 
BIOTECHNOLOGY
A field of life sciences that involves the use of microorganisms (such as bacteria or yeast) or biological substances (like enzymes), to produce certain drugs and foodstuff.
                                        
BIOTIC ENVIRONMENT
An environment where living organisms are responsible for biotic factors that affect the ability of others living things to survive in that environment.
An example of common biotic factor which can affect the human population is disease.
 
BIRTH
The action or process of being born.
 
BITUMEN
A substance, which is black, highly viscous and sticky like tar, that is used for paving roads.
 
BLADDER
A bag inside the body in which urine collects before it is passed out.
Example: Urinary bladder
 
BLOOD
A mixture consisting of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that is pumped by the heart through the arteries and veins within the body.
 
BLOOD CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The system that circulates blood within the body to deliver nutrients (food) and oxygen to the cells and remove waste products from them.
It consists of the heart, blood vessels, the blood and the lungs.
 
BLOOD PLASMA
The liquid part of the blood that contains water, blood protein, inorganic substances, digested food and cell waste.
 
BLOWHOLE
An opening for breathing at the top in mammals such as whales and dolphins.
 
BLUBBER
Fats in some sea mammals like seals and whales.
 
BOILING
The changing of a liquid into a gas (vapour). This change occurs at the boiling point.
 
 
BOILING POINT
The temperature at which a liquid changes rapidly to vapour.
 
BOTANY
The branch of science, which deals with the study of plants.
 
BORON
The fifth element of the Periodic Table.
Symbol: B
A Boron atom has 5 protons, 5 electrons and 6 neutrons. Boron is a crystalline non-metallic elements.
 
BRAIN
The part of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body.
 
BREATHING / BREATHE
The process of drawing air into and releasing air out of the lungs.
 
BREED
To reproduce or make new young plants or animals.
 
BRONCHITIS
Inflammation of the air passage in the lungs. A person suffering from bronchitis may not live if it is left untreated.
 
                                                          
BROWNIAN MOTION
The constant movement of particles suspended in a liquid or a gas in a random manner.
 
BUD
An undeveloped protruded swelling on a plant stem, often covered by protective scales and will grow into a new plant.
 
BUDDING
A process of asexual reproduction in which a bud develops from a part of the parent cell. Yeast breaks away from the parent and develops into a new individual.
 
BULB
A short, vertical underground stem consisting of thick fleshy leaves that contain stored food for the plant and allows the plant to reproduce.
Examples: onion bulb, tulip bulb, potato tuber.
 
                                                           
BUNSEN BURNER
A heating apparatus that uses gas for burning.
 
BUOYANCY
The ability to float due to the upward supportive force of water. Buoyancy is determined by the density of water.
 
                                                            Do you Know?

Birds perched on electrical energy cables are not electrocuted because it is easier for the electrical  energy  to travel  through  the  cables  than the birds. The cables have a much lower resistance than birds.

Some biodegradable plastics slowly decompose in sunlight into smaller molecules which can then be broken down naturally by microorganisms.

The brain uses 20% of the body’s supply of oxygen and glucose. The brain cannot store  oxygen  and  glucose,  Therefore  an  insufficient  supply  of  either  one  will cause adverse effects to the brain.
 

Brownian movement is the random movement of particles in liquids or gases which can be observed when the  particles collide  with each  other.  This  concept is based on the experiment carried  out  by  a botanist  named  Robert Brown (1827).  He observed  the movement of pollen suspended in water using a microscope.